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moved, and a number of choice fe morning dawn, and promulgates the males, distinguished for their shape, glad return of another day to his kind their beauty, and their plumage, are protectors. selected for his companions.


If we compare his life to that of them he enjoys all the pleasures of other domésticated animals, what a connubial society. No competitor contrast in his favour! He is not dares to interfere, nor does any mean compelled to labour like the horse, jealousy, nor any anxiety about finer nor pampered up for slaughter like the dress, more splendid apartments, or steer, nor like the sheep, annually de. a gayer equipage, disturb the hap- prived of his own covering, for the piness of the little community. purpose of clothing others : and if

When the cock, in the morning, his lot is to be compared with the struts into the field or garden, at human race, even when they reach the head of his little troop, with what maturity, and all the labours of edu. grace and dignity does he not appear. cation are over, what a contrast be. If he is fortunate enough to discover tween a being who has hardly a mi. any unexpected store of food, with serable moment, and one whose whole what gallantry does he not cail upon existence is a continued scene of la. his female friends to partake of the bour, care, passion, and perplexity! repast, before he venture himself to After enjoying for several years touch it. Of food he has always this life of personal comfort and so. sufficiency, procured either by means 'cial pleasure, the hour of dissolution of his own industry, or the generosity at last approaches. No painful of his cottage friends, who contract struggle of prolonged torture embit

. a partiality for him, and are anxious ters his latter days : he perishes at to relieve his wants.

once, without any anticipation of his Owing to the purity of the air he approaching fate; nor are his last rebreathes, the wholesomeness of the mains exposed to the idle curiosity food he lives on, and the judicious of a thoughtless multitude, nor dissystem he pursues in regard to exer. honoured by the miserable peagantry cise, together with bis exemption of a public interment at the expeace from care and severe labour, no ani. of an exhausted country. mal can possibly enjoy better health.

Hence it appears, that no life is, on He never has any occasion for the the whole, so desireable as that of 4 drugs of the apothecary, or the pre domesticated cottage cock. scriptions of the physician : no feverish heat ever circulates in his veins, nor does the gout, the stone, or the gravel, ever shorten his days, or em

Explanation of Phenomenon in the

WEST INDIES. bitter their enjoyment. When night approaches, satisfied

To the Editor. with the pleasures of the day, he SIR, retires to rest with his companions, TN the Magazine for July last, i in a place chosen for that special pur. correspondent, subscribing himself pose, and where there is no danger of M, statęs, as a curious fact

, his slumbers being interrupted by any

" that in the island of Curacoa, in fierce, or any insidious enemy. His longitude 68'..30, latitude 120..30, repose is never disturbed by the which is prodigiously hot, a thermo. • dreams of avarice, or the torments of meter held in the hand of a native, envy, or of ambition; and

resid. joying the pleasures of sound repose ed on the island, will not rise within for some hours, be awakes with the two or three degrees so high, as in

fier en
or one who has for some years



the hand of a person lately come from eminently disposes to the free e:-
Europe.” Of the causes of this cape of caloric from the system as
phenomenon he confesses his igno. fast as it is generated.
fance, and solicits an explanation of In colder climates, a different
it from some of your correspondents. arrangement occurs.

Both quadru-
A careful observance of natural peds and birds, although less beauti-
appearances, and an unsophisticated ful in their colours, are provided with
detail of what actually occurs, are richer furs and finer down ; and in
the genuine sources of sound infor- the human species the skin, unless
mation. But to render such facts carefully protected, is more dense
more extensively useful, by enabling and rigid, and the quantity of artifi.
us to explain their causes, it is not cial covering is in general very consi.
enough merely to mention the object derable. These coverings, in both
of our curiosity, it is necessary, at cases, are bad conductors of heat, and
the same time, to relate those colla. tend to accumulate and retain it a.
teral circumstances with which it is boot the body.
connected, and which frequently in a In the human species, and indeed in
great measure modify its appearance. the whole tribe of mammalia, the
Sach auxiliaries are highly necessary medium temperature of the body, in
in every department of natural know- every climate, is about 97o of Faren-
ledge, but more especially so, when heit. But in birds, at least those
we attempt to explore the complicat. who fly much, it is seldom under
ed and interesting phenomena of or- 100°; and the exertioos of the ani.
ganic life.

Thus, in the present case mal, and the nature of the covering, it would be desirable to know the re- maintain this temperature uniform lative temperament and habits of the . and steady; nor can there exist, for natives and strangers in Curacoa, any length of time, a remarkable the dress and modes of living, and deviation from it, without the prowhether this diversity of temperature duction of disease. be extended to the lower animals.- Let us now apply these facts to However, to meet the views of your the explanation of the present phequerist, I shall, as far as I am able,

A person arriving in the and the data which he has furnished West Indies direct from Europe beme with support, venture on a pro comes suddenly and perpetually subtempore solution of the object of his jected to the influence of a temperature wonder.

greatly above what he had before The structure and natural cover. been accustomed to experience.-ing of the inferior animals appear Heat is a powerful and general sti. wisely adapted to the climate in mulus to animal bodies. The circu. which they are destined to live ; and lation is therefore preternaturally acin no instance do we observe this ar- celerated, respiration is performed rangement more striking, than in what more frequently, and the generation respects the production and evolu- of heat is augmented. But the tion of heat. The quadrupeds of system cannot immediately accomtropical climates have a short, loose modate itself to this change, and all hair, upon their bodies. The birds at once obviate its bad effects. The possess a richly-coloured plumage, rigidity of fibre, and comparative but are comparatively but thinly co- greater density of the integuments, vered. The skin of the human spe. continue for a considerable time, and cies in these latitudes is soft, loose, the heat produced accumulates in and

porous, and the individuals clothe the system, and is but slowly carried themselves lightly. This economy off. It is easy to conceive, that the Nov. 1806.



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absolute heat of the body of a per- them, what was formerly called a
şon, in such a state, must be greater Dun, was now called a Burgh, both
than in another, whose surface is meaning one and the same thing, i.e.
inore porous, and where consequently circular fort. Mr Scott, in his Lay
the disposition to perspire is easily of the last Minstrel, says with great
excited, and where the heat is there- propriety,
fore thrown off as fast as it is gene.

“ When the streets of high Dunedin
rated. In this latter case, the tem. Şaw lances gleam and faulchions redden,
perature seldom or never exceeds 970 &c."
of Farenheit. In the former, the per- Dun. This word radically signi-
son may be said to be in a state of fies a circular fort. Figuratively, it
fever, where the heat is always sc. has been taken to signify a hill; nor
veral degrees above the standard of is this at all difficult to be account.

ed for. These duns were uniformly Hence the diversity of result which built on hills, and the idea of a dun a thermometer indicates when held and a hill would thus necessarily besuccessively in the hand of each. But come connected. But in all cases, this difference gradually vanishes, without a single exception, though and that happy versatility of constitu- we find no dun without a bill, we iion which accommodates itself to find many hills without a dun; and every temperature soon manifests it. where yer the epithet dun is applied to self, and enables man ultimately to any hill, that hill either contains, or bear with impunity every vicissitude has contained a fort. Dun is pro. of climate.

2. nounced din sometimes, but more ge

nerally doon, and is the radix of our

modern word town, D and T being GAELIC Etymologies. often commuted, and in the gaelic To the Editor.

frequently pronounced so as to be

hardly distinguishable. Thus from SIR, If the annexed etymologies deserve a

the Saxon or Danish burgh, we have place in your useful miscellany, you brugh, and sometimes burrow; and

the English word burgh, pronounced anay insert them, and oblige, SIR,

from the Gaelic dụn, we have also

the English word town, both signiYours, &c. November 5th. 7

fying a city. An old Latin author 1806. $

Milo. has aptly said, “ Præsidium urbium

quarebant homines spe custodia sucrum ΕΙ DINBURGH.

. The antient rerum,i. e. " Men sought the pro. name of this town is Dunedin, ţection of cities with the hope of prei.e. the fort of Edwin. In Latin, it serving their goods. Every British is elegantly rendered Edinodunum.-- burgh'or town, in ancient times, was Burgh is a word imported with the either a fort itself, or built under the Danes and Saxons, and from Eng- shelter of one, to which the inhabitland introduced into Scotland, for ants could betake themselves in cases these nations never obtained a suffi. of danger or emergency. cient footing in the latter to establish DUNKELD is, in colloquial lan: either their language or their cus- guage, uniformly pronounced Dunkel. toms; whereas, of the former, they The radical name is Dun Guel, i.c. made a complece conquest, and by the fort of the Gael, or ancient their salutary laws, and wise munici. Caledunians. It appears to have had pal regulations, laid the foundation three names, viz. Dun-Gael.-Giarde of ihe British constitution. From Dun, and Dun-Gael.Dun.


to come.


Whoever is in the least acquaint- at this festival also remitted their sins ed with the Gaelic, will observe that for the past year, and hallowed, or these three names literally signify sanctified them for the

year the same thing. . As to the redup. He also consecrated the fire, and lication of dun, in Dun-Garl-Dun, it every householder took home with is quite in the spirit of the Gaelic him a portion of this holy fire to relanguage ; for we say Fell-Hope-Pen kindle his own, which had been ex(pronounced fa'-up-pen,) though fell, tinguished as aforesaid. hope, and pen, all signify a hille The deep policy of the Druids in Pen-Christ. Pen, &c.

fixing this extinction, and rekindling Carn. This is the original word, of the fires, to the beginning of winthough from different modes of pro- ter, had also a different purpose to nouncing it, it has been written

Every one who had not setcairn and kern. The carns were oftled with the Druid for his dues up i wo kinds, ime, sepulchral monu- to that date, was excluded from any ments, 2do, places of worship. I share of this hallowed fire, and all mean only to treat of these last at his neighbours were interdicted from present. Carn radically signifies an lending him under pain of excommuartiticial collection of stones, and nication, which, as managed by the these carns in the time of the Druids Druids, was worse than death. Eve. were held in great repure.

Each ry one was therefore necessarily come druid had bis particular diocese, and pelled to make punetual payment, or within that diocese his temple and his live without fire to warm his family, carn. The carn was always placed or cook his provisions, from Novem.. on the most conspicuous hill in the ber to November. The 1st Novem. diocese. The temple was devoted to ber still bears the name of Hallowthe more private and mysterious acts e'en, i. e. the holy evening, thougla of religion, but the carn to those others, with great probability, and a which were common and public.- stricter conformity to matters of fact, The carns seem principally to have write it hallow-tein, i, e. the holy been devoted to rejuicing and thanks- fire. Be that as it may, it is evident giving, when they kindled huge fires, that this festival was a general rein honour of Belus. These fires joicing for harvest home. were kindled at new-year's day, the The preceding narration is perhaps summer and winter solstice, &c. ; but in itself unimportant, did it not furthe most grand, interesting, and im. nish a key for explaining a custom portant was on the 1st of November. still prevalent among us, in most By this time the fruits of the earth places of Scotland, called the kern, or were collected, and the Druid had kirn, which, every one knows, is a his dues or stipend paid him. On feast and rejoicing for the complethe preceding evening the Celtic na- tion of the harvest. This word seems tions extinguished their fires with as to have baffled our most assiduous much care as the Jews purged their antiquarians, and etymologists. On bouses of leaven on the night before the introduction of Christianity these the passover. On the said first Novem- kern or carn rejoicings would naturalber, the whole diocese repaired at ry be abolished, as customs idolata even to the carn, where an immense rous and repugnant to Christianity. fire was kindled, round which they From this æra, what was before a na. danced with the most ecstatic joy, tional rejoicing would of course become and returned thanks to Belus for the an individual one, and every person goodness of the harvest, the abun- would naturally make his own rejoi.. dance of the crop, &c. The Druid cing at the time most convenient for

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himself after the conclusion of the bell from Within a mile of Edinbro, for harvest.

you must know Lucy is to be married But though no man had now need to The Ranting roaring Highlandman, to go to che carn for the remission So down we sat to Cakes and ale, and of his sins, or the rekindling of his were very happy, when up flew the fire, &c. still such is the inveteracy door, and in started a Soldier laddie : of custom, that hallow-e'en is still re. I thought it had been Johnny Cumin, garded in all the Celtic regions with but na faith, says Peggy Band, that's some degree of veneratiou. Fires John Andersonmy jo, from Bonny Dunare then every where kindled, and dee, for He wou'd be a soldier. Most various cantrips (as the phrase is) of us knowing John, we invited him practised to pry into futurity, &c. to a seat ; he took out his fiddle and

From the similarity of rejoicings, was beginning to touch The bush aand from the coincidence of the sea. boon Traquair, but was stopped by son of the year at which they took Duncan Gray, who begged he would place, as well as from the near resem. first favour us with God save the king : blance of the pronunciation of the Hang the king, says Charlie Stuari, words, there appears no reason to who wasimmediately knock'd down by doubt that Carn, Cairn, Kern, and Juick the brisk young drunmer, who is a Kirn, are synomimous terms, or rather Bonny bold soldier. We all thought provincial variations of the original that Lewie Gordon would have inter. word Carn.

fered, who was standing in a neuck whistling Johnie Cope, when in came

the Wand'ring sailor, singing Hearts ; Curious enumeration of SCOTTISH

oak, with Black-eyed Susan in one hand,

and The Oak stick in the other, and poor Songs *

Lewie did not like A' that an'a' that, To Sandy o'er the Lee. but slunk away as pale as Hosier's

ghost. Duncan Davidson was begioDEAR SANDY,

ning to cry Kick the rogues out, when AF FTER getting some Cauld kail in the midst of the scuffle we had

in Aberdeen, with John Roy notice, by Roy's wife of Aldavalich, of Stewart, I accompanied him to the the arrival of the young couple from house below the hill, where Green grows Waulking i' the fauld ; then the cry the Rashes, and where two or three of was Busk ye, busk ye, and Fy let us d' The

merry lads of Ayr were taking to the bridal. By this you will undertheir Bottle of punch, having lately stand that Johnny's made a wedding o't. come from Don-side. The landlord We were just going, when Jenny Netwas Johnny M Gill,


know he mar- tles hinted that the Ale wife and her ried the Souter's daughter ; she gave barrel must be paid; on which we bid us a hearty welcome, for Blyth was The good wife count her lawing ; so each she but an' ben, and when she came ben of us had a Sax-fience under our thumb, shebəbbit, and introduced us to Maggy and Jenny's bawbee made up

the sum. Lauder, Mary Gray, &c. &c. not for. On coming to The back of the change getting the Bony wee thing: they were house, where the wedding was held, all waiting the arrival of Lucy Camp near the Mill-mill 0, we were met by

The lad's of Dunse, gallanting the * The following letter, which has fal. Lasses of Stewarton. The best man len accidentally into our hands, may

was Rattling roaring Willie, and I as. perhaps be thought amusing by some of sure you Willie is a wanton wag:our readers.

The best maid was Katherine Ogie,


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