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Elector to throw himself into the arms of Russia has refused to ratify, France offer. his master. Prussia, it was alledged, did ed, in conjunction with Russia, to prevent nothing for her allies! It is true, Napoleon Prussia from depriving the King of Sweknows how to manage his better; and e- den of his German territories. Yet for very one sees that Spain and Holland, and many months, the Cabinet of St Cloud had the' Kings of Wirtemberg and Bavaria, continually pressed the King to seize those have to thank their alliance with him for states, with the threefold view.. first, to repeace, independence, and honour.--Prussia

venge himself on the King of Sweden ; sedid nothing for her allies! Napoleon, en condly, to embroil Prussia with all other the contrary, would reward the accession

powers; and, thirdly, to purchase her silence of the - Elector by an enlargement of his with respect to the subversion of Sou' hern territory.

Germany. But the King had long been This treachery was expressed towards an aware that such were the views of France ; ally of Prussia, at the very moment when and his unfortunate dispute with Sweden the King was advised to form an alliance of was painful to him. He had, therefore, which Hesse was to be the first bulwark; en- been careful to provide against every susdeavours were made to detach from him a picion of self-interested motives, and he power, whom family connections, alliances, confided his explanations to the Emperor and relations of every kind, united in the Alexander. The scene now again chan. closese manner to his Majesty's person. ged; and Napoleon, who had so long been

But even these hostile steps were not the enemy of the King of Sweden, was suflicient. Does any one wish to know suddenly transformed into his protector. what was the lure by which it was hoped It is not superfluous to remark, that, in to gain the Elector of Hesse, and what was this insidious treaty of the French Empethe augmentation of territory with the ex- ror, in order to satisfy the honourable inpectation of which he was flattered? It terest which the Court of St Petersburgh was the Prince of Orange, the brother-in. took in the maintenance of the rights of law of the King, that Prince who had been the King of Naples, he promised the latter twice deceived in the most shameful man. an indemnification ; engaging to prevail

on ner, who was now to be robbed the third

the King of Spain to cede to him the Batime; he still possessed the territory of learic islands. He will act in the same man. Fulda. This was promised to the Elector; ner with respect to the augmentation of and it would have been given, had the territory he pretends to bestow on his alElector consented to accept it, and had not Prussia taken up arms.

These were all preludes to the steps he His Majesty saw the system of usurpa- took against Prussia---we now approach tion advancing every day. He saw a cir- the moment which determined his Majescie, continually becoming narrower,


drawn round him, and even the right of moving Prussia had hitherto derived nothing within it beginning to be disputed with from her treaties with France but humilia. him, for a sweeping resolution forhade a tion and loss; one single advantage remainpassage to any foreign troops, armed or ed. The fate oi Hanover was in her power, not aried, through the States of the Con and it must remain, unless the last pledge federation. This was to cut off, contrary of the security of the North were annihilato the rights of nations, the connection bes ted. Napoleon had solemniy guaranteed tween the detached Hessian provinces ; this state of things, yet he negociated with this was to prepare pretexts on which to England on the basis of the restoration of act; this was the first threat of punishment the Electorate. The King is in possession aimed at a magnanimous Prince, who had of the proofs. preferred a defender to a master.

War was now in fact declared-declared But even after this, his Majesty cannot by every measure taken by France. Every Teflect on it without admiration ; the King month produced a new notification of the considered, whether a combination might return of his army; but. on one frivoloủs not be found, which should render this pretext or another, it was still continued in state of things compatible with the main- Germany; and for what purposes! Gratenance of peace.

cious Heaven! to eradicate the last trace of The Emperor Napoleon appeared to be sovereignty among the Germans-to treat solicitous to remove this doubt. Two ne. Kings as Governors appointed by himself gociations were then carrying on at Paris, to drag before military tribunals citizens one with Russia, the other with the English only responsible to their own GovernMinistry. In both these negociations the ments; to declare others outlaws who live intentions of France against Prussia were ed peaceably in foreign states under foevidently manifested.

reign Sovereigns, and even in the capital of By the treaty which the Emperor of a German Emperor, because they had pub.


lished writings in which the French Go- Emperor a letter full of those assurances of vernment, or at least its despotism, was esteen, which certainly, when they do not attacked; and this at the time when that accord with facts, ought to be considered same Government daily permitted hired as nothing, but which the dignity of Solibellers to attack, under its protection, the vereigns renders a duty to themselves, e. honour of all crowned heads, and the most ven when on the eve of war. Yet a few sacred feelings of nations.

days afterwards, at a moment when the 'The French troops were in no manner sword was not yet drawn--when the Min diminished, but continually reinforced and nister of the Emperor endeavoured to misaugmented, and continually advanced nearer lead those of the King, by assurances of to the frontiers of Prussia and of her allies, the friendly intentions of France-the Pubtill they, at length, took a position which liciste of the 16th of September appeared, could only menace Prussia, and were even with a diotribe against the King and the assembled in force in Westphalia, which Prussian state, in a style worthy of the certainly was not the road to the mouths most disgraceful periods of the revolution, of the Cattaro.

insulting to the nation, and what, in other It was no longer doubtful that Napoleon times than ours, would have been considerhad determined to overwhelm Prussia with ed as aniounting to a declaration of war. war, or to render her for ever incapable of 'The King can treat slanders, that are war, since he was leading her from humili- merely abusive, with contempt; but when ation to humiliation, till she should be re- these slanders contribute to explain the real duced to such a state of political degrada- state of things, it would be unwise to treat tion and feebleness, that, deprived of every them so. defence, she could have no other will than The last doubt had now disappeared ; that of her formidable neighbour.

troops marched from the interior of France The King delayed no longer. He as. towards the Rhine. The intent to attack sembled his army. General Knoblesdorf Prussia was clear and certain. The King was sent to Paris with the final declaration ordered a note to be transmitted by Geof his Majisty. Only one measure remain. neral Knoblesdorf, containing the condied which could give security to the King, tions on which he was ready to come to an which was the return of the French troops accommodation. These conditions were, over the Rhine. Gen. Knoblesdorf had 1. That the French troops should immeorders to insist on this demand; it was not diately evacuate Gerniany. the whole of the King's just demands, but 2. That France should oppose no obstacle it was necessary that it should be the first, to the formation of the Northern Confesince it was the condition of his future ex- deracy; and that this confederacy might istence. The acceptance or refusal of it embrace all the larger and smaller states must shew the real sentiments of the French not included in the fundamental act of the Emperor.

Confederation of the Rhine. Unmeaning professions arguments, the 3. Tha: a negociation should immediatereal virtue of which were known by long ly be commenced for the adjustment of all experience-were the only answer the differences still in dispute ; a preliminary King received. Far from the French army article of which should be, the restoration being recalled, it was announced that it of the three Abbeys, and the separation of would be reinforced; but, with a haughti- the town of Wessel from the French Emness still more remarkable than this refusal, pire. an offer was made, that the troops which These conditions speak for themselves ; had advanced into Westphalia should re- they shew how moderate the King, even turn home, if Prussia would desist from her at this moment, has been in his demands, preparations. This was not all; it was in- and how much the maintenance of peace, solently notified to the King's Minister, if France wishes peace, depends upon France that the cities of Hamburgh, Bremen, and herself. Lubeck, would not be suffered to join the The term peremptorily fixed by the Northern Confederation, but that France King for the decision of peace or war has would take them under her protection ; in elapsed. His Majesty has not received the sanie manner as, in the other confedera- the answer of the Cabinet of St Cloud; or tion, she had given away cities, and pro- rather, the preparations made around him mulgated laws, without permitting any o- daily give that answer. The King can ther power to make the least pretension. henceforth confide the safety and honour The King was required to suffer a foreign of his crown only to arms. He takes them interest to be introduced into the heart of up with pain, because the chief object of his Monarchy.

his wishes was, not a glory purchased by Another contrast of conduct incensed the the tears of his people, but by their tranKing to the utmost. He received from the quillity ; for his cause is jusi. Never has

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a Sovereign made greater sacrifices to cessant care and solicitude for the wel. peace. He pushed his condescension to the fare of the interior of our Empire, equal. fast limit that honour would allow. Every ly with its foreign relations, it has ever thing which was directed against him per- been our wish to establish them upon sonally he passed over in silence. The o.

an immoveable basis, and to defend the pinions of the ignorant, and the reflections of the slanderous, he despised, animated

State by such alliances as the situation with the constant hope that he would be

of our country may require, able to conduct his people, without injury,

“ With this view, we have thought to that period which must sooner or later proper, from the commencement of our arrive, when unjust greatness shall find its reign, to remove every cause of misunbounds; and ambition, which obstinately derstanding, and, by a friendly conduct, refuses to acknowledge any limits, shall at to unite with those powers whose wise length o'erleay itself.

and moderate principles were consistent The motives which induce his Majesty with their independence and the general to take up arms are not to satisfy his resent.

tranquillity: the Most High blessed our ments, to increase his power, or to render

wishes and endeavours, and at that pea nation uneasy which he shall always es

riod bestowed upon Europe a general teem, as long as it confines itself to its just and natural interests; but to avert from his

peace. kingdom the fate which was preparing for

However, it did not consist with it ; to preserve to the people of Frederick

his inscrutable Providence to prolong their independence and their glory: to res.

the continuance of this order of things : cue unfortunate Germany from the yoke War broke out again. by which it is oppressed, and to bring a- “ But as our situation did not per. bout a safe and honourable peace. The mit us to take any immediate part in the day on which he shall effect this will be

war, we never ceased to remain faithful the proudest of his life. The events of the

to our allies; and to continue to wish war which is now beginning are in the dis

and labour for peace and tranquillity, posal of the Supreme Wisdom, His Majes consistently with the common welfare ty leaves it to others to indulge in premature exultation and gratuitous insult, as he

by every friendly interference in our has for a long time allowed them the mic power. serable satisfaction arising from unjust in- “ But, notwithstanding this interfevectives. He leads to an honourable com- rence, the daily increase of the French bat an army worthy of its former glory. power, the situation of our allies, threatHe reigns over a people of whom he may ned by its aggrandisement and unbound. be proud ; and while he is ready to shed ed ambition, compelled us to take an his blood for them, he knows what he may active part in this war.

We took up expect from their energy and affection.

arms, but we did not cease to wish for Princes, the honour of the German name,

peace ; and we also deciared, in our u. who can confide in his gratitude and honour, and who, fighting by his side, are not

kase of September 1, 1805, that the object dubious of victory, have joined their ban

of our arming was to preserve the sa. ners with his; and a Sovereign, who adorns

cred inviolability of treaties, and to rewith his virtues one of the first thrones

store the general tranquillity. The in the world, is penetrated with the justice misfortunes which attended the arms of of his cause. Every where his arms are our allies operated against the realiza. blessed by the voice of his people ; and e- tion of our views; however, the princiven where they are silent from fear, their ples upon which they were grounded reimpatience is the greater. With so many mained unchanged. At the commence. motives to be conscious of her ştrength, ment of the present year, the French Prussia nay well be permitted continually to confide in her high destiny.

Government manifested an inclination

approximating to peace : We accordingHead Quarters, Erfurt, Oct. 9. 1806.

Jy issued orders to enter into discussions

with them immediately. RUSSIAN MANIFESTO.

“ The restoration of a peace, consis.

tent with the dignity and security of our “We, Alexander the First, by God's empire, the advantage of our ailies, and grace, Emperor and Autocrat of all the the general tranquillity of Europe, were Russias, declare and make known to laid down as the fundamental basis of all our faithful subjects, that, in our in- those discussions. But, to our regret,


the conditions of peace agreed to with vation of our allies, and the dignity of France, by M. D'ouvril, were neither our Empire. consistent with the dignity of our Em. " Given at St Petersburgh, August pire, nor with the security of our allies.- 20. and in the sixth year of our We refused to ratify those conditions.

Government. " But, at the same time, to afford a

“ ANDRE BUDBERG." proof of the immutability of our principles, which, under various circumstan

BRITISH DECLARATION. ces, had been ever directed to the same end, we at that time made known the THE negociation in which his Majesconditions on which we were disposed ty has been engaged with France hav. to renew our negotiations with the ing terminated unsuccessfully, his Majes: French Government.

ty thinks proper to make this public “ The bases proposed by us are so declaration to his subjects, and to Eumoderate, that they cannot be rejected, rope, of the circumstances which have without an open menace of the gene- led to an issue which his Majesty deeply ral safety; and they are so consistent regrets. He has no object nearer to his with the advantage of every power con

wishes than the conclusion of a secure cerned, that in case of their being ac. and permanent peace. He laments the cepted, a general peace must not only continuance of a war affecting the happifollow, but be confirmed to Europe u. ness of so many nations, and which, even pon the most permanent footing. amidst all the successes that attend his

“ Thus must peace, or the continu. arms, is so burdensome to his faithful ance of the war, be the consequence of and affectionate people. But he is conthese measures. We wish for peace; fident that there can arise in this occabut if no lasting peace can be obtained, sion no other sentiment, either in his grounded upon mutual advantage, then own dominions, or in any part of Euit will be necessary, for the honour of rope, than that of an increased convicthe Russian name, the character of our tion, that the restoration of general tran. engagements, and the general deliver- gillity is retarded only by the injusiice ance of Europe, to proceed to extre

and ambition of the enemy: mities, which, on these considerations, The French Government; unsatisfied cannot but appear to us as absolutely with its immense acquisitions on the indispensible.

Continent, still openly perseveres in a “ We are convinced that the provi- system destructive of the independence dence of the Most High, who is the of every other power. War is pursued, defender of truth, will assert with his not for security, but for conquest; and strong arm the justice of our cause. negociations for peace appear to be en

“ We are convinced that each of our tered into for no other object than that faithful subjects, animated with the love of deluding the neighbouring powers of their Country, impelled by a sense of into a state of false security, while honour, and surrounded by examples France is herself preparing, arranging, of patriotic zeal, will speedily unite and executing her unremitted projects their powerful efforts with our own, as of encroachtnent and aggression. soon as the safety of Russia, the voice Her conduct, in the recent discus. of glory, and our command, shall call sions, has afforded but too many proofs upon them to co-operate for the public of this disposition. good.

The negociation originated in an of. “ In this firm reliance upon the help fer made by the French Government of of God, and the zeal of our faithful sub- treating for peace on the basis of actual jects, we have thought it necessary to possession, which was stated to admit inform you before and of our views; of mutual compensation ; and a distinct and, in so doing, to afford you a new assurance was added, that his Majesty's proof, that, in all our undertakings, we German dominions, which had been atneither seek the extension of our terri. tacked without even the pretence of tory, nor the fieeting glory of victories; any cause of hostility, should be restorbut that it is our wish and endeavour ed. to secure the general safety, the preser. Such a proposal appeared to his MaNov, 1806.


jesty to afford a just foundation for ne- in points, still more important, every gociation : It was therefore accepted, principle of good faith with Russia. with this reserve, that the negociation The chief inducement offered to that should be conducted by his Majesty in power, as the price of all the sacrifices concert with his allies.

extorted from hier Minister, had been No sooner had this basis been mutu. the preservation of Germany. Yet beally admitted, than it was departed fore the decision of Russia on this trea. from by the enemy, and that, too, in ty could be known, France had already points of so great importance, as to call annihilated the whole frame and constitu. for an immediate, declaration on the tion of the German Empire ; had repart of his Majesty, that unless the prin- duced under her own yoke a large prociples proposed by France herself were portion of the states and provinces of adhered to, the communications which Germany; and, not content with this had been opened between the two Go. open contempt of obligations so recentvernments must at once be closed. lv contracted, had at the same time in

This produced new professions of the stigated the Porte to measures directly disposition of France to make consider. subversive of her subsisting engagements able sacrifices for the attainment of with Russia. peace, if the discussions were suffered While such a conduct was pursued to proceed; at the same time, that a towards his Majesty, towards his allies, difficulty was started on account of the and towards all independent powers, want of full powers in the person en- there appeared so little hope of any fa. trusted by his Majesty with this com- vourable issue to the negociation, that munication. Steps were thereupon tà- his Majesty's Plenipotentiaries demand. ken by his Majesty for opening a re- ed their passports to return to Ergiant, gular negociation by Ministers duly all- This demand was at first eluded by thorised, in order to ascertain, in a man. an unusual and unexplained delay, and ner the inost satisfactory and authentic, the French Government afterwards, by whether peace could be obtained on some material concessions, accompanied terms honourable to the King and his with intimations that others of still g:ea. allies, and consistent with the general ter consequence might be the result of security of Europe.

further discussions, procured a renewal During these proceedings, a Minise of the conferences, which were protracter sent by the Emperor of Russia to ted from day to day, till at length it was treat for the same important object, in announced at Paris, that the Emperor concert with his Majesty's Government, of Russia had indignantly rejected the was induced, by the artifices of the e. unauthorised and separate treaty signed nemy, to sign a separate treaty, on by his Minister. terms equally repugnant to the nonour In consequence of this important e. and interests of his Imperial Majesty. vent, the strongest assurances were giv.

Unmoved by this unexpected event, en to his Majesty's Minister, that France the King continued to negociate pre- 1,25 now prepared to make sacrifices to cisely on the same principles as before. a great extent, in order, by securing He relied, with a confidence which ex- peace with Great Britain, to re-establish perience has amply justiñed, on the the tranquillity of the world. good faith and steadiness of an ally, in The object of these assurances ap. concert with whom he had begun to peared, however, to be, that of engag. treat, and whose interests he had main- ing his Majesty in a separate regociatained throughout with the same firm. tion, to the exclusion of his asies; a ness as his own.

proposal which his Majesty had rejec. The French Government, on ihe con. ted in the outset, and which he cou'3 trary, elated by this advantage, or which still less admit of at a time when the it boasted as equal in importance to the conduct of Rassià dad iz posed on him most decisive victory, departed icerery an increased obligation rot to serarzte conference more and more widely from his interests from those of se faithful a its own offers and engagements. Not airy. To these insidious overtures, bis only did it take upon itself to change, Majesty still refused to listea ; but the at its own will, the basis of the nego. took the most efectual method to aroid riation with Great Britain, but vio ated all appearance of delay, and to accele


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