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It bears, not on the calamity abstract- there would, in my opinion, be no room edly considered, but on a moral quality, for hesitation, provided a man felt only: which it disceros in the unhappy person for if you reason, the case is entirely who is the object of it. It derives in- altered; the talents, the victories, the crease from the view of innocence, and renown of the Grecian general, would sometimes still more from that of repen- presently absorb the calamities of an obtance. Man alone, of all animals, is scure child. Reason willrecall you to susceptible of it; and this, not by a se- the political interest, to the I human. cret retrospect to himself, as some ene The sentiment of innocence is a ray mies of the human race have pretended: of the divinity. It invests the unfortufor, were that the case, on stating a nate person with a celestial radiance, comparison between a child and an old which falls on the human heart, and man, both of them unfortunate, we recoils, kindling it into generosity, that ought to be more affected by the misery other fame of divine original. It alone of the old man, considering that we renders us sensible to the distress of virare removing from the wretchedness of tue, by representing it to us incapable childhood, and drawing nearer to those of doing harm; for otherwise, we of old age : the contrary, however, might be induced to consider it as fuftakes place, in virtue of the moral fen- ficient to itself. In this case it would tinent which I have alleged.

excite rather admiration than pity. When an old man is virtuous, the Of the Love of Country. moral sentiment of his distress is excited This sentiment is, still farther, the in us with redoubled force; this is an fource of love of country; because it evident proof, that pity in man is_by brings to our recollection the gentle and DO means

an animal affection. The pure affections of our earlier years. It fight of a Belisarius is, accordingly, a increases with extension, and expands most affecting object. If you heighten with the progress of time, as a septiit by the introduction of a child, hold. ment of a celestial and immortal nature. ing out his little hand to receive the They have, in Swisserland, an ancient alms bestowed on that illustrious blind musical air, and extremely simple, calied beggar, the impression of pity is still the rans des vaches. This air produces more powerful. But let me put a fen- an effect so powerful, that it was found timental case : Suppose you had fallen necessary to probibit the playing of it, in with Belisarius foliciting charity, on in Holland and in France, before the , the one hand, and on the other, an or- Swiss soldiers, because it set them all phan child, blind and wretched, and a-deserting, one after another. I imaa that you had but one crown, without gine that the rans des vaches must imithe possibility of dividing it, to which tate the lowing and bleating of the catof the two would you have given it? tle, the repercussion of the echos, and

If on reflection you find, that the e- other local associations, which made the minent services rendered by Belisarius blood boil in the veins of those

poor

folto his ungrateful country, have inclined diers, by recalling to their memory the the balance of sentiment too decidedly valleys, the lakes, the mountains of in his favour, suppose the child over their country t, and at the same time, whelmed with the woes of Belisarius, nity not less barbarous, from the hands of and at the same time poílessing some of his parents. He suffered caftration from his his virtues, such as having his eyes put own father, who was by profession a surgeon: out by his parents, and, nevertheless, he, nevertheless, supported that unnatural

I believe both father conticuing to beg alms for their relief *; and fon are still in life.

The redor of a country village, in the † I have been told that Poutaveri, che Invicinity of Paris, not far from Dravet, un dian of Taiti, who was some years ago derwent, in his infancy, a piece of inhuma- brought to Paris, on seeing, in the royal

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the companions of their early life, their edly, thus powerfully attaches those first loves, the recollection of their in- poor people to the place of their birth. dulgent grandfathers, and the like. It was this which inspired the Greeks

The love of country seems to strength- and Romans with so much courage in en in proportion as it is innocent and the defence of their counlry. The sen. unhappy. For this reason favages are timent of innocence strengthens the love fonder of their country than polished of it; because it brings back all the afnations are ; and those who inhabit re- fections of early life, pure, facred, and gions rough and wild, such as moun- incorruptible. Virgil was well taineers, than those who live in fertile quainted with the effect of this senticountries and fine climates. Never ment, when he puts into the mouth of could the court of Ruslia prevail upon Nisus, who was dissuading Euryalus a single Samoïède to leave the shores from undertaking a nocturnal expedition, of the Frozen Ocean, and settle at Pe- fraught with danger, those affecting tersburg: Some Greenlanders were words : brought, in the course of the last centu- Te fupereffe velim : tua vitâ dignior zetas. ry, to the court of Copenhagen, where if thou furvive me, I shall die content : they were entertained with a profusion Thy tender age deserves the longer life. of kindness, but soon freited themselves to death. Several of them were drown.

But among nations with whom infan. ed, in attempting to return to their cy is rendered miserable, and is corcountry in an open boat. They beheld rupted by irksome, ferocious, and unall the magnificence of the court of

natural education, there is no more love Denmark with extreme indifference ;

country than there is of innocence. but there was one, in particular, whom

This is one of the causes which fends they observed to weep every time he so many Europeans a-rambling over the saw a woman with a child in her arms;

world, and which accounts for

Our

hayhence they conjectured, that this unfor ing fo few modern monuments in Eutunate man was a father. The gentle- rope ; because the next generation never ness of domestic education, undoubt

fails to destroy the monuments of that

which preceded it. This is the reason garden, the paper mulberry tree, the bark of that our books, our fashions, our cufwhich is, in that illand, manufactured into toms, our ceremonies, and our lancloth, the tear started to his eye, and clasp guages, become obsolete so soon, and ing it in his arms, he exclaimed ; ah! tree are entirely different this age from what of my country! I could wish it were put to the trial, whether

, on presenting to a foreign they were in the last ; whereas all these bird, say a paroquet, a fruit of its country,

particulars continue the same among the which it had not seen for a considerable time, sedentary nations of Asia, for a long it would express some extraordinary emotion. series of ages together ; because chilThough physical sensations attach us strong, dren brought up in Asia, in the habitaly to country, moral sentiments alone can tion of their parents, and treated with give them a vehement intensity. Time, which blunts the former, gives only a keener

much gentleness, remain attached to edge to the latter. For this reason it is, the establishments of their ancestors, that veneration for a monument is always in out of gratitude to their memory, and proportion to its antiquity, or to its distance; to the places of their birth, from the this explains that expresion of Tacitus: recollection of their happiness and innoMajor è loginquo reverentia : distance increases

(To be continued.)

of

reverence.

cence.

OBSERVATIONS ON THE UTILITY OF DEFINING SYNONY

MOUS TERMS;

CONCLUDED FROM PAGE 39. IN order to obviate this feeming ob- difference of opinion, respecting the jection, ii must be remembered, that a same act, in any two countries, may,

.

rary naturally, produce a difference in the claim, and was the foundation on

e interpretation of those words that which it was built. z: expreflive of this act in each. Un The fame notions respecting vows ised terms have, in this way, become prevailed among the Greeks, as well as a fruitful source of controversy in mat- the Romans. In the prayer of the en both civil and religious ; and even priest who had been affronted by Agathe science of grammar has suffered by memnon, the Grecian bard makes him de naccuracies of expression, which state his claim, to be heard in the most i steses to remedy in all other sub- express terms. eas. The religious sentiments of the

---ει ποτε τοι χαριεντ' επι νηον ερεψα, Isans were by no means refined. H st Ön FOTE TOxaToe Alovc pengi' exence

. Iss were presented as bribes to their

Ταυρων

nd
derywig

τοδε

μοι κρηην ον ελδωρ. terjes, into whose ear they whispered

Flagitare differs from postulare, and persions, which they were ashamed to akuowledge in the face of the world. agrees with poscere. in fuppofing the * Turpillima vota diis infufurrant; li justness of the privilege assumed by the

petitioner, of judging as to his own Çus amoverit auren, conticescent, et

claim. Its power, however, is more quod fcire hominem nolunt deo narret." The prayer of such worshippers, the idea of being the judge of the vali

extensive than that of pofcere, because to , was a matter of traffic, not an

dity of his right, it superadds that of sa of devotion. Chat disinterested be

effecting his purpose by such means as utolence, in reliance upon which more

he reckons fit for doing so. In those paus fupplicants present their requests,

may

be was done of the attributes of the Ro- means, at the same time, there

a considerable variety. The petitioner Ean deity. The humiliation of the devotee was, in his own eyes, an article may either distress the person requested

with inceffant importunity, or he may of merit; and be left the altar, on which he had laid his offering, feeling he feels himself entitled to enforce is

threaten vengeance,

if the claim which the ob'igation imposed on that being to

not fulfilled. That flagitare has more wtem it was presented. Mang paffages in the Latin classics power than rogare and poftulare, appears

from the two following sentences : cooärm the truth of the observations

“ Metuo ne te forte flagitent ; ego aum, Dow made.

tem mandavi ut rogarent.. .“ Tametli -non tu prece pofcis emaci,

caufa poftulat, tamen quia poftulat, non z nis leductis nequeas committere divis.

Aagitat, ego præteribo." * Antiquam limen Capitolii tangant, In the oration of Cicero for Plancius, è us donum promittit, fi propinquum he calls upon Lærerensis to specify his Ćt tem extulerit, alius, si thesaurum charge, and to mention any one tribe ed-derit. Ipfe senatus, recti bonique that his friend bad corrupted in his comprzcep:or, mille pando auri Capitolio petition for the ædileship.

66 Etiam atpomituit. Omnibus diis hominibusque que etiam insto atque urgeo, insector, fornofior videtur massa auri, quam posco atque adeo flagito crimen.” There quicquid Apelles Phidiasve, Græculi

is evidently a climax in the five verbs deirantes, fecerunt.”~" Prisco insti- that compose this fentence, and the to rebus divinis opera datur. Cum gradation is very happily supported. By a quid commendandum eft, prece ; cum

means of pofcere, the orator makes a b.sendum, gratulatione ; cum ex pofcen- requisition in behalf of his client, of the der, voro.” The vow then ainong the justice of which he had a right to judge : Romans was a bribe, the acceptance and by the public manner in which this of which was deemed obligatory upon requisition was made, he virtually the party who took it. As means lead- threatens him with the penalties of law, ng to an end, it necessarily preceded if it was not complied with ; which last Vol. LVIII.

conception is involved in the verb flagi- the danger of not complying with his tare.

request. Those which apnounce the Ausonius Popma defines this verb sentiments of the soldiers by means of very properly, " Vehementer et plerum- poscere, are exprellive of no unbecomque cum strepitu et convicio poscere." ing menace towards their commander,

The gentlest power of flagiture, which but make the fulfilment of their right is that in which the petitioner proposes to be led on to battle by him, the conto effect his purpose only by teazing, dition of their obedience. Many, again, appears in such examples as the two fol- whose request is made by poftulare, suglowing : “ Implorare et flagitare auxi- gest a reasonable claim, in which there lium consulis."

is not even the shadow of contumacy. : -nec potentem amicum

They are willing to obey the orders of Largiora pagito,

their commander with all prudent disSatis contentus inicis Sabinis.

patch, and even in his absence, and There are other instances again, in they require a reinforcement, not as a which flagilare implies, that the peti- right, but as a means of doing justice tioner threatens the person requested, to their own courage, and to the cause and excites fear, in order to effect his which they had espoused. The delicapurpose.

cy exhibited by the historian in this desEjicite ex animo curam atque alienum æs, cription, will please the more the longNe quis formidet flagitutorem fuuni. er it is contemplated. He not only de“ Petreius atque Afranius quum fti- lights his reader by an elegant and maspendium ab legionibus pene 'seditione terly discrimination of the various fenfacta flagitarentur, cujus illi diem non- timents then prevalent in the mind of dum veniffe dicerent, Cæsar ut cognola Otho and his followers, but furnishes ceret veniffe dicerent poffulatum eft.him also with some curious grammatiThe request made by the soldiers, in cal facts, which few other writers had rder to obtain their pay before it was ingenuity to perceive. due, was very different from that made Docere, erudire, instituere, imbuere, to Cæsar in order to have the matter set- agree in denoting a change produced tled.

upon the mind by communication from ' There is a passage in Tacitus,. in others, but differ in respect, either to which the three last of the five verbs the state of that mind to which the considered are so placed, that the mean communication is made, or to the means ing of each is very elegantly and de employed in making it. Docere, which, cisively brought forth. The historian is according to Varro, comes from do, describing the seotiments both of Otho signifies to give information to those who and of the army at Bedriacum, wbich, need it, without reference to their prehe had left just before the engagement vious knowledge, and is a correlative that was to decide the conquest between term in respect to discere. Thus, Sehim and Vitellius.

" Ibi de prælio du. neca says, “ Homines dum dofcent, difbitatum ; Othone per literas flagitante cunt.”—" Itaque non facile est invenire ut maturarent ; militibus ut imperator qui, quod fciat ipse, alteri non tradat. pugnæ adesset poscentibus ; plerique co. Ita non solum ad discendum propensi supias trans

Padum agentes acciri poftula- mus, verum etiam ad docendum.” That bant." By forming this anti-climax, docere is applicable to all who receive Tacitus gives information to the

gram

instruction, whether ignorant, or in a marian which is worthy of his atten- certain degree previously instructed, aption. The terms of the Emperor's pears from the following paffages : message, in which flagitare is used, are Quid nunc te Asine literas doceam ? expreflive of his authority, and intimate non opus est verbis fed fuftibus."

Hoc

Ex quoque té manet, ut pueros elementa quod litum est in generis humani socie. dvierten

tate, tum ad modestiam magnitudinem Qazapet extremis in vicis balba senedus.

que animi erudivit."

In this last exIn the passages now quoted, docere ample, the progreis of man, as the pubutes the mind as receiving the infor- pil of philofophy, is beautitully painted 1901 to be completely ignorant ; but by erudire in its purett fenfe. is a three that follow, they appear to

There is no inconsistency in docere De 1 a ftate directly contrary. “ Et and erudire appearing in one sentence, dzbe fas (ut aiunt) oratorem eum, and being applied to the different de a quum Caculus nuper audisset, fe- grees of proficiency made by thole aca 1:a alios aiebat esse oportere.” quiring knowledge.“ Neque solum viPara recognofces, pauca docendus eris. vi atque præfentes studiosos discendi "Quid eft enim aut tam arrogans, quam

erudiunt arque docent, fed hoc idem de regione, de rebus divinis, ceremo

etiam post inortem monumentis literais facris, pontificum collegium docere rum assequuntur.” Sallust says of Sylconari?"

la, that he was

v literas Græcis atque Dacere is almost the only one of the Latinis juxia atque do&tiffime eruditus." verus mentioned, that is employed to Upon the principles laid down, this denote information given as to an event, compounded expression will bear to be as well as the acquisition of a new con analysed. The participle, it should creion. “ Cum interea de literas qui- seem, denotes, that he had been regudem ullas accepi, quæ me docerent quid larly instructed in Greek and Roman

literature, and the adverb, that the Erudire, from e and rudis, differs stock of his knowledge was such, thas from docere, in referring always to the few, if any, were able to add to it. the rude state of the person instructed,

One instance occurs in Cicero, in. and to the gradual progress by which which erudire signifies to inform as to be becomes learned. No such expres- an event, which docere does often. Loa as “ fus erudio oratorem,” can ex.

“ Obviæ mihi velim sint literæ tuæ, quæ it, because, when docere is thus used, me crudiant de omni re publica, ne hofpes is vilities the ability of the teacher, and plane veniam.” This uncommon use of heightens the information of the scho- erudire seems to justify the definition B. When the Romans u'ed the phrase given of it. Cicero modestly confesses fu Minervam, the construction was to

that ignorance of the affairs of the state, be completed by docere, not by erudire, in consequence of his absence, which They caly admitted in idea the possibi. is perfectly consistent with the pure use hy of adding one or a few facts to of erudire, and which, when duly rethe Buck

of knowledge, posleffed by the presented, his correspondent was able gatis of learning. The instances that follow shew clear.

Instituere differs from the preceding ly, that erudire constantly implies the verbs in denoting the first step of a probiance of is formation upon the part of gress in teaching, and the communicaet person to be instructed.

tion of the elements of whatever is the

ground of instruction. The Emple verb - qui mollibus annis Le patrias artes erudiendus erat.

ftatuere, in a figurative sense, denotes

the determination to act, while the Inde puerum liberûm loco cæptum compound denotes the commencement keberi, erudirique artibus quibus inge of the action that had been resolved upon. sia ad mageæ fortunæ cultum excitan. It is only, however, as applied to teachtur."_" Philofophia omnium mater ing, that this verb can be held synonyaruum nihil aliud eft quam donum in- mous with the relt of the set. “ Socrates Sensam deoram. Hæc nos primum ad jam fenex inftitui lyra non erubescebat." Dorum cultum, deinde ad jus hominum The verb here evidently refers to the

first

to remove.

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