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ten to the Court of Spain, that he On the Efects of INDUSTRY.
did not believe there was a single

“ Qui non laborat non manducat."
imortal sin commited in any of these
reductions in the course of a twelve.

0 F the many virtues which merit month. Whatever faults they may the attention of the moralist, or have committed, they are generally employ the powers of men of genius, the first to acknowledge them and to none is of more consequence than petition for chastisement.

that of industry. While it is to the The missionaries declare that they statesman and philosopher the source would have wished to keep their of literary fame, and the parent of useHocks ignorant of the very name of ful discovery, it is at the same time no war, but this was impossible, from dess valuable to the mechanic and the vicinity of barbarous tribes, and daily labourer. It confers on them particularly from the establishment degrees of honour which stamp their of a band of Portuguese renegadoes reputation, and it has been found, in the back settlements of Brasil. from the peasant to the courtier, a pure 'Arms were put into their hands in fountain, from whence every social order to repel these enemies, which joy is made to flow. As there is no they did with great bravery. period of life in which the principle

These establishments are now at of virtue can be instilled in the disan end : l'he Jesuits of America position with so much advantage as were involved in the wreck of their when reason begins to dawn, how inorder in Europe. The care with auspicious may be that man's fate, which they prevented all communi. who has estranged himnseli to early cation between the Spaniards and habits of industry, --while he retraces Indians, and the training of the lat the barrenness of his past life, he will ter to arms, were interpreted as symp- be equally unable to provide for the toms of a design to establish an in- future. Our talents and corporeal dependent empire of their own. Yet strength are the gifts of nature, be. the reasons which they assign for stowed upon us to be cultivated and this procedure seem to be sufficiently improved ; and if our proper exertion plausible. Mr Davies mentions his of them fail to enliven the present having found some Jesuits at Buenos scene, it will invariably tend to eme / Ayres who were possessed of papers bellish our future destiny. While we which threw great light on the pre- possess, therefore, each in our own sent state of South America, and of situation, a certain portion of such which doubtless our government will endowments, conscience is also awake avail themselves.

to call for our contribution of beneSome attempts were also made to "fit to society in general. To provide establish missions in the Magellanic for the follilment of this demand, it regions. But the vicinity of Buenos is requisite that our capacities be imAyres on one side, and the attacks of proved in early life, when the imathe Savages on the other, prevented gination is awake to acute idea, and these from acquiring any degree of the mind fitted to receive those im. magnitude and consistence.

pressions, which will render youth Such are the principalevents which pleasant, manhood respectable, and have marked the history of Buenos old age honourable. On the contrary, Ayres to the time of its conquest by if we suffer habits of languor to steal Sir Home Popham. For the subse. away our abilities, or enervate our quent events we refer the reader to bodies, by indolence and ease, we shall the historical department of this ma. jusily incur the imputation of folly, gazine.

and bring npon ourselves not only the

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contumely of the world, but the more Bees, by driving the lazy drones poignant reproach of our own feel. from out their commonwealth, seem ings: the finger of scorn will be point to teach us by humble example to ed at us, and we shall find, too late, banish


from wellthat we have destroyed to ourselves regulated society, and to reserve our every courtesy of human life. Indeed

superfluities for those whose ill health if we refuse our share of general utili or misforlunes have rendered incapaty, we may very deservedly be exclud. ble of fulfilling the duties of their sta. ed from participating in the harvest Lion : such only are objects of chaof another's labour.

rity; and while we relieve the idle Qui non laborat non manducat.” and profligate, we are robbiog the He that does not labour does not eat. more deserving of their due. If we do not sow, how is it possible however be observed, that, by debarfor us to reap. Such are the diciates ing the inactive man from participa. of the voice of nature ; for would it ting in the benefits arising from the not be extremely unjust, if, after hav- labours of others, the affluent and the ing squandered selfishly whatever we great, who constitute so numerous possessed, we should be allowed to a portion of mankind, would then be reap the productions of others indus- left destitute. This objection may try, without endeavouring, in auy indeed at first view appear specious, degree, to supplant those seeds of dit but by close investigation the fallacy ficulty which our own indolence has of the argument will soon become rooted in the way of comfort ; or at- evident, and the confutation of it contempting, by every exertion in our sequently easy. By labour, we are power, to rear those of a more fruit. not only to understand manual works, ful nature? Would not the husband. but likewise those of the fertile brain, man have cause to murmur, were he the free use of which is given equally forced to divide the recompence of to the opulent and the indigent, the his toil and labour with an object illustrious and the abject. While so totally unworthy of his assistance ? the mechanic cmploys himself in his and would he not be intitled to treat shop, and the husbandman wields the him with the same degree of scorn plough, the greater personage may that the Ant in the apologue of the be occupied in studying the national French fabulist showed towards the good, or in the improvement of his Grasshopper, who, after having sung own estates; and while he is tbus during the exuberance of summer, busied, perhaps, in designing plans without at all anticipating the deso. to be put in practice, or in directlation of winter, when that seasongar. ing and superintending the different rived, went to the provident Ant and artificers and workmen who execute begged of him a trifling subsistence his designs, he may be considered as till the return of plenty,_" How labouring himself, and is entitled to " were you employed during the fine partake of the comforts arising from “ weather?” said the sage insect. the industry of others. The impor

Night and day I sang and diverted tant truth of the necessity of activity "myself," replied the reduced bor- ought to be inculcated carly, while

“ You sang! I am glad you its influence may yet avail, and while were so merry,” added the Ant, the mental soil is prepared by nature " and now you may go and dance." to receive and nourish the seeds of It is not compassion, bu' folly, co aid virrue ; but care must be observed, those who, having ability, will not that in sowing them no bad ones he aid themselves. The busy industrious intermixed; for being of a more hardy



nature, they will grow with greater such ao acquisition. A perfect conrapidity, and be found more difficult formity of temper, and of excellence, to eradicate. If we sow in the Spring, was the pledge of their conjugal aftherefore, we shall in the Summer fection : but the contests which disreap a plenteous harvest; and while tracted Italy, soon called the Marwe are thus enabled to provide amply quis from his domestic enjoyments, for the feebleness of age, we shall and at the battle of Ravenna, where decline with chearful resignation imo he had the command of the cavalry, a tranquil and honourable grave. But he was dangerously wounded, and if we sow nothing, we can expect to led, with the Cardinal de Medici, affind only brambles and thistles to obterwards Leo X. a prisoner to Milan. struct our progress in the spring of Whilst confined in the castle of that life, and to begin to fade ere the place, and prevented by his wounds summer of our existence is past; from bodily exercise, he devoted his hunger and faiigue will consequently hours to study; the result of which deprive us of the sweets of autumn, appeared in a dialogue on Love, adand we shall be left in the winter to dressed to his wife, which has not decay, unfriended and unpitied. been preserved to the present times,

IV. S. M. but which we are assured was replete

with good sense, eloquence, and wit.

He was at length liberated from his Account of the Life and Writings of confinement by the active interference VITTORIA COLONNA.

of his friend the Marshall Trivulsio,

and by the active part which he afFrom Roscoe's Lorenzo de Medici. terwards took in the military affairs

of the time, and the many engageV

ITTORIA COLONNA was the ments in which he was victorious,

daughter of the celebrated com. acquired the highest character among mander Fabrizio Colonna, grand the Italian leaders. Having entered constable of the kingdom of Naples, into the service of the Emperor, he by Anna de Montefeltro, the daugh- commanded at the battle of Pavia, ter of Federigo duke of Urbino. She in which Francis 1. was made priwas born about the year 1490, and soner ; where he distinguished him. when only four years of age, was self no less by his magnanimity and destined to be the future bride of humanity, than by his prudence and Ferdinando d'Avalos, marquis of Pes- intrepidity, to which the success of cara, then very little further advan. the Imperialist has usually been atced in life. The extraordinary en. tributed. This event he did not, dowments, both of person and mind, however, long survive, having fallen with which she was favoured by na a sacrifice to his military fatigues, ture, aided by a diligent and virtuous and the consequences of his wounds. education, rendered her the object of He died at Milan in the month of general admiration, and her hand was December 1525, after a short but repeatedly sought in marriage by se. glorious life, which has afforded amveral of the independent sovereigns of ple materials for the historian. This Italy. Happily, however, the early fatal event blighted all the hopes of choice of the parents was confirmed his consort; nor did her sorrow adby the mutual attachment of their mit of any alleviation, except such offspring, and at the age of seventeen as she found in celebrating the chashe became the wife of a man who, racter and virtues of her husband, by his great endowments, unshaken fi- and recording their mutual affection delity, and heroic valour, merited in her tender and exquisite verse.


Soon after his death she retired to profession, and not indeed withoité the island of Ischia, refusing to lis. having given rise to some suspicion ten to those proposals of other nup- that she was inclined to the doctrines rials, which, as she had no offspring, of the reformed church. her friends were desirous that she Among the Italian writers who should accept. In her retirement have revived in their works the stile she appears to have acquired a strong of Petrarca, Vittoria Colonna is entit. religious cast of character, which did led to the first rank; and her sonnets; not however prevent her from exer many

of which are addressed to the cising her poetical talents, although shade of her departed husband, or she, from this time, devoted them relate to the state of her own mind, chiefly to sacred subjects Her ex. possess more vigour of thought, emplary conduct, and the uncommon vivacity of colouring, and natural merit of her writings, rendered her pathos, than are generally to be the general theme of applause among found among the disciples of that the most distinguished poets and school. Her Canzone, or monody, learned men of the time, with many to the memory of her husband, is of whom she maintained a friendly however more deservedly celebrated, epistolary intercourse. She was also and is certainly in no respect inferior a warm admirer of the great artist to that of Bembo on the death of Michel Angelo, who executed for his brother Carlo : bnt perhaps the her several excellent pieces of sculp- most favourable specimen of her tature, and appears to have enjoyed lents appears in her stanze, verses her favour and friendship in an emi. in ottava rima, which, in simplinent degree; she having on several city, harmony, and elegance of style, occasions quitted her residence at equal the productions of any of Viterbo, to which place she retired her contemporaries, and in lively some years before her death, and made description and genuine poetry excel excursions to Rome, for no other them all, excepting only those of the purpose but that of enjoying his so. inimitable Ariosto. ciety. This affectionate attachment, equally honourable to both parties, was at other times supported by an

SCOTTISH REVIE W. epistolary intercourse. To her Mi. chel Angelo has also addressed seve The Life of the late Professor Millar. ral of his sonncts, which yet remain, and in which his admiration of her

By John Craig, Esq. (Prefixed to beauty and accomplishments is tem

a new edition of his Origin of the

Distinction of Ranks.) pered with the most profound res. pect for her character. gular anecdote preserved by Condivi

; THIS able professor, and eminent that this eminent man paid her a vi. Shotts, a small village between Glassit in the last moments of her life; gow and Edinburgh. His father was and that he afterwards expressed his clergyman, first there, and afterwards extreme regret, that he had not on at Hamilton, and was much respect. that occasion kissed her face or her ed for his abilities, learning, and puforehead as well as her hand. After rity of manners. Young Millar rehaving lived until the year 1547, she ceived the first rudiments of his eduterminated her days at Rome, not cation with his uncle Mr John Milhaving taken upon her any religious lar, who resided at Millheugh, about


eight miles from Glasgow. In 1746 he tion now took a decided bent towards went to Glasgow college, where he law, he obtained, without much difdistinguished bimself. For some time ficulty, permission to makethechange. he lodged in college chambers, and About this time he spent two years usually dined with the celebrated with Lord Kames, who had invited Dr Cullen, to whose wife he was re- him to undertake the education of his lated, and whose society must doubt- son. The society of this distinguished less have been of great benefit to him. man must have greatly contributed, He was also intimate in the house of both to improve Mr Millar's powers, Mrs Craig, where he met with a so and to give them that direction in ciety of inquisitive and intelligent which they afterwards became so disyoung men, among whom was Mr tinguished. About this time too, he Watt, the celebrated mechanical in- enjoyed the acquaintance of Mr ventor, who gives the following ac. Hume; and it is remarkable that, thos count of the figure which he there differing in politics, he had zealously made.

adopted the metaphysical opinions of

that celebrated writer, which one " In our meetings," says Mr Watt, (in would have thought peculiarly foreign a letter with which he honoured me re

to his steady and practical habits of lative to this memoir) “ the conversa

thought. Mr Hume shewed bim “ tion, besides the usual subjects with

the same mark of confidence as Dr 'young men, turned principally on lite** rature, religion, morality, history; and Smith, by intrusting him with the " to these conversations my mind owed education of his nephew, now Profes. " its first bias to such subjects. Mr Mil sor of Scots law in the University of “ lar was always looked up to as the ora. Edinburgh. s« cle of the company; his attainments “ were greater than those of the others; 1760, and his first appearances at the

Mr Millar passed Advocate in “ he had more wit, and much greater ar. "gumentative powers."

P. iii.

bar were such as'to afford fair pros

pects of eminence in a profession, During the course of Mr Millar's which leads to higher distinction

than attendance on the University of Glas


other now in Scotland ; so gow, Dr Adam Smith began to offi. that, says Mr Craig, ciate in the class of Moral Philoso. phy; and though this was a class

It was not without surprise that his which he had already attended, he death of Mr Hercules Lindsay, of ap

friends learned his intention, on the yet eagerly embraced the opportunity plying for the Law Professorship at of hearing the lectures of that great Glasgow. It seemed to them an extra

Dr Smith soon distinguished ordinary want of ambition in a young him from among the crowd of his man, whose talents entitled him to look students, and began a friendship forward to the highest honours of his which continued during their whole profession, at once to abandon all these lives. Dr Smith afterwards entrust

hopes, and sit down contented with the

moderate revenue, and the less brilliant ed Mr Millar with the education of reputation, of a Teacher of Law. They his nephew Mr Douglas, at a time knew that he could not be prompted to when he himself could ill want his such a step by timidity, for his temper company.

was uncommonly sanguine ; nor by inMr Millar had been sent to Glas. dolence, for never was a mind more ac.

tive. He was induced, however, to gow with the view of being educated

take this resolution, by his having, a. as a clergyman, and his father was

bout this time, married Miss Margaret rather anxious that he should follow Craig, a lady nearly of his own age, to that profession ; but as his inclina. whom, while visiting on a familiar footDec. 1806.



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