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in the Miscellanea Genealogica et Heraldica, as Record Office. I would willingly join in any shortly to appear, the Parish Registers of Madron, movement to effect this most desirable object. in the County of Cornwall, a place which probably | Fifteen years ago I made a tour over a large many of the readers of this never heard of, and portion of Scotland, and examined tombstones in yet it will sell.

the different parishes. The result of my inquiries With each register I should certainly give all has been published by the Grampian Club in two existing monumental and tombstone inscriptions. octavo volumes. To the Scottish parochial clergy This leads me to mention that I have persuaded a I issued schedules, but I received comparatively very respectable but comparatively humble in- few replies. Country ministers seldom answer dividual to copy, after his day's business is over, public letters ; such has been the experience of all the inscriptions in the churches, churchyards, antiquaries for centuries. If inscriptions on tomband cemeteries of the cathedral city in which I stones are to be preserved, the Master of the Rolls live. These he will publish in one volume, just as should appoint a suitable person in each county

Cansick has done those of the London churches. to undertake the transcription. In like manner . I obtained for him a few influential subscribers, diocesan, parochial, and municipal registers should

who rapidly brought many others; and now the be catalogued. Good work in this respect has man will certainly make “a pretty penny" by his been done in Scotland, but in England and Ireland very easy work, for which, of course, an antiquary little has been accomplished. No antiquarian subhas no time. Why should not this be done in ject interests me more than this, but it is useless other towns ?

to work unaided in this or any other field. I have only to add that it has been suggested

CHARLES ROGERS, LL.D. that the Harleian Society should undertake this | Grampian Lodge, Forest Hill. publication of registers at an extra subscription,

Many of your readers will no doubt have read and individuals might join one or both branches of the society as they chose.

Tas it deserves the article in the current number of ARGENT.

the Church Quarterly Review on “Parish Records." I trust that ARGENT's suggestion, when modified, | It comes as an apt commentary upon ARGENT'S will meet with sufficient support to lead to the suggestion, and the opening words of its concluding formation of such a society as he describes. Many | sentence might indeed serve as a motto for his local antiquaries already possess copies of the more proposed society : “Let us more perfectly do for important entries in the parish registers of their posterity what our ancestors did in a measure for districts, and these they would no doubt contribute us."

H. W. gratuitously. By restricting the extracts pub

New Univ. Club. lished by the society to entries of noble, gentle,

Form the society, collect by subscription ample and eminent yeoman or other families, the space

mes, the space | funds, and offer to every clergyman a fee for every occupied by each parish would be comparatively

one hundred entries as they are sent up. My small, and a yearly volume might well contain the

registers begin in 1560. I should therefore have cream of several registers. It would probably be

be a long work before me, and, moreover, a very dry

on advisable, also, in order to render the volumes

work; therefore the fee should be large and liberal. more generally interesting, that they should con

T. W. R. tain the registers of parishes in the north as well as the south of England, say three from the pro

Mrs. Christian DAVIES (5th S. vi. 511.)—I vince of Norroy King-of-Arms and three from that of Clarencieux. I would gladly join the

am glad to see this question again brought forsociety, and could promise to obtain the names of

ward, and trust we may now hear whether there is several other subscribers ; I would also place at

in truth any evidence that Defoe wrote the life. the disposal of the council extracts from the regis

It was first printed in 1740, a second time in 1741,

and a third time, modified, in 1742. It is well ters of several parishes in Lancashire and Cheshire.

* written, and much in the style and manner of J. PAUL RYLANDS, F.S.A.

Defoe. On the one hand, it has been said (3rd S. Such a society as is now proposed I endeavoured ix. 323) how could it have been the work of Defoe, to constitute about nine years ago; but it did not as he died nine years previously? And why succeed, nor, I fear, would it succeed now. The should we doubt that the name given to the third work to be done is vast, and the labour nearly edition, that of J. Wilson, is really that of the overwhelming. The registers of Nonconformist author ? To the first point, it may be replied that churches were, by a Royal Commission, collected the life practically ends with the death of Marland deposited in Somerset House about thirty borough in 1722, hence it might quite possibly years ago ; but the clergy objected to the transfer have been written by Defoe ; and to the second, of the parochial registers, and they retain them unless it can be shown that there really was a surstill. These should now be collected and, under geon named J. Wilson at Chelsea, it may be a proper arrangement, deposited in the Public fictitious name assumed by Defoe. If, however, it was written by him, it is difficult to understand I do, that it is the genuine evidence of her ladywhy it was not printed till nine years after his ship's spite and malice :death ; first with no author's name, and then with «The Lawyer's Fortune, or Love in a Hollow Tree, a that of an unknown surgeon, when that of so well | Comedy. Written by" (here half the line is left blank, known a writer as Defoe would at once have com

and filled up in this copy in MS., "Lord Grimston"). manded a ready sale.

“Revis'd and Compared with the First Edition in 1705.” I am not aware that Defoe's biographers, such

Then vignette ; a couple of trestles with a tight as Chalmers, Wilson, and Lee, have ever claimed

rope extended, upon which an elephant is performthis book for Defoe. It has, because it is so likes

ing a pas seul, an exceedingly pretty device in red. his style, been printed several times amongst his

"London, printed for E. Underhill, and sold by the works, and sometimes been incidentally spoken of

booksellers of London and Westminster, 1736, as his, but in such a manner as to render his author

• price 6d.” The words in italic in red; 12mo., ship of it very doubtful. Thus Chadwick, Life of ||

El pp. 64. The author's preface as in the genuine Defoe, 1859, p. 444, says that Defoe could not pay

| edition of 1705. The Biographia Dramatica says his butcher's bill “on the security of the last

the elephant one has a frontispiece exhibiting the impression of Mother Ross,” forgetting that there

foregoing “allegorical reflection upon his lordWils no impression of the book in existence till

ship's understanding," thus really ignoring the several years after Defoe had ceased to have any

frontispiece in this, illustrating the third scene in

the comedy, “ The Desert," with its hollow tree in trouble about butchers' bills. There is no doubt but that the main facts of the which sits an owl; a fissure in the trunk, discover

the centre ; a dry branch upon the upper part, on life of this extraordinary person are correctly given. Ling the bearded Valentine addressing the astonished There were several brief accounts of her published |

Friendlove ; wild beasts roaming in the backat the time of her death in 1739. The following

ground, and in the fore part the most direct insult is from the London Magazine for July, 1739,

upon the author, indicated by a coroneted ass p. 361, in the list of deaths for the month :

munching a thistle. In an old hand on the fly* At Chelsea, Mrs. Christiana Davig, who for several leaf, “by William Vincent Grimston, printed by years served as a Dragoon undiscover'd in the Royal order of Sarah, Duchess of Marlborough." The Irish Inniskilling Regiment; but receiving a wound in

edition of the same date, octavo, differs from mine K. Williams Wars at Aghrim in Ireland, she was then discover'd; tbo' her Comrade had not the least sus

also in being “ Lond., Printed and Sold by E. picion of her being a Woman: She behaved with great

Hill” ; has the same frontispiece, but, instead of a Valour, was afterwards in Flanders, and was very useful smart donkey munching a thistle, has a passive, in a Battle or a Siege to supply the Soldiers, &c., with stupid-looking brute with a better defined coronet ; Water and other Vecessaries, even to the Mouth of a li

the plate reversed; the vignette relegated in black Cannon. She, for her courageous Behaviour, obtain'd his late Majesty's Letter for an allowance out of Chelsea / as a neaap

w as a headpiece to the first page of the comedy ; College of 18. per day, which she receivid till her Death. / and besides the author's preface has a second, adAnd her Corps, according to her desire, was interr'd dressed “ To the Right Sensible the Lord Flame," anionust the old Pensioners in Chelsea Burying-Ground, subscribed “ The Publisher,” with some notes of a sud three grand Vollies fired over her Grave.”

spiteful and depreciatory character, from which it Faulkner, in his History of Chelsea, quotes the is evident that both these were put forth with the above statement (ii. 226), and adds that she was same intent. The editions in quarto, published well respected by many persons of distinction and by Lintott, are no doubt the author's own-that of general officers, that her third husband was a 1705 anon., and that without date “ written by W. persioner in the Royal Hospital, and that she Grimston, Esq.” The Rotterdam edition I have resided the latter part of her life at Chelsea, being not seen. This absurd comedy fell into the hands principally supported by the charity of some per- of the wits at an earlier period. Swift apostrophizes sons of quality (see Boyer, Political State of Europe, the author thus :vol. Iviii. p. 90). Faulkner makes no mention of

« The leaden crown devolved to thee, Jr. J. Wilson. EDWARD SOLLY.

Great Poet of the Hollow Tree";

and Pope, with reference to his lordship's residence “THE LAWYER'S FORTUNE” (5th S. vii. 27.)—

th o at Gorhambury, follows suit :

“Shades that to Bacon did retreat afford As a pendant to Mr. Solly's note, I would observe

Are now the portion of a booby lord”; that all the paragraphs bearing upon the Duchess of Marlborough's treatment of Lord Grimston's un

and, finally, Dr. W. King, in his Art of Cookery, fortunate comedy are derived from the Biographia

| in Imitation of Horace, n.d., but marked 1719, Dramatica, where the electioneering edition is not

devotes five or six pages of his introductory matter So fully described as it might have been, and

to an ironical review of The Lawyer's Fortune.

to an ironic possessing the copy of “John Towneley, Esq."

J. 0. not in the British Museum), with his book-plate, GERARD JOHNSON (5th S. vi. 409.) - Mr. I here give its title and peculiarities, believing, as MORRELL will see from Redgrave's Artists of the

Eng. School, 1869, that Gerard Johnson was a the words a wider meaning than they will bear. modeller, a Hollander, who lived in the parish of His interpretation would require some such word St. Thomas Apostle, in London, and it is on the as extirpatio, a rooting up, a getting rid of altoauthority of Dugdale's Diary that the Shakspeare gether. But cleansing a thing and extirpating it bust is attributed to him.

are processes widely different. In one case the In the “ Calendar of State Papers, Domestic thing ceases to exist, in the other not, but only in Series, 1623-25, p. 430, occurs this :

| a better state. Further, the grammar is against “Petition of Gerard Janson, of Amsterdam, to the him. To render his translation tenable, there King, for a patent of the sole manufacture in England must be an exchange of prepositions, ex for in, as for twenty-one years of gally works of earth, and a pro. the latter is never used in the sense of from. hibition of their importation."

| Finally, whatever MR. Addy's experience may There is no doubt at all but that this is the have shown him, there is certainly no authority, Hollander of St. Thomas Apostle, written by as far as I can find, for golda meaning " charlock,'' bungling people then and since as Gerard John- or any other vegetable production. He would son; and I think that through “N. & Q.” search have been much nearer the mark if he had said might be made at Amsterdam which would the same of bladum, which means corn, or, by : identify this Janson, and connect him with the metonomy, the land on which it yrows. artistic Jansons of Holland, and Janssens, more

EDMUND TEW, M.A. especially, of Amsterdam, whence Cornelius (also improperly called Johnson) came. I make little When the chartulary of Beauchief Abbey was question but that the Cornelius Janssen, who in force, gold was the popular English name for painted the splendid Sir Kenelm Digby in the Chrysanthemum segetum (corn marigold). Chaucer, Spencer Gallery, was the close relative of our City | in his Knightes Tale (1. 1932), mentions— “ Hollander"; and although he has been called a

“ Jelausie wretched stone-cutter, I find him to have been a

That wered of yelwe goldes a gerlond.” very good artist.

Tyrwhitt, in his glossary to Chaucer's works, Of course, this settles the other question put by writes, “ Gold, n., a flower commonly called a MR. MORRELL, showing that he could not have turnsol; and Lightfoot, in his Flora Scotici, been related to the Thomas Johnson, physician, adds to his description of Chrysanthemum segetum who translated Gerarde's Herbal. Gerarde was the following remark :-himself “civis et chirurgus Londinensis.” The “These golden flowers turn to the sun all day, an first edition was in 1596, of which there is a rare ornament to the corn-fields, and afford a pleasing sight mony in the British Museum and this very book to the passenger, but are 80 very detrimental to the has helped to establish the first culture in Engli

husbandman, that a law is in force in Denmark which

unture in una obliges the inhabitants everywhere to eradicate them out land of many old plants. Old John Gerarde, of of their grounds” (vol. i. pp. 489, 490). Holborn, whom Burleigh calls his servant, did

KIRBY TRIMMER. achieve marvellous sound work in his day and generation, and his memory now blooms accord! Cowel's Interpreter assigns to this word the ingly, like the rose of Hafiz. C. A. WARD. meaning, "a gullet,” “a sink," "a passage " for Mayfair.

water, &c., and quotes the following :[In our edition, the author spells his name Gerard, “Confessionem etiam quam idem Thomas fecit-de and dates his address “ To the Courteouse and well terris suis & terris tenentium suorum tum liberorum willing Readers” “From my house in Holburne, within quam nativorum, a Goldis mundandis per se & suos the Suburbs of London, this first of December, 1597.] secundum consuetudinem in locis de Alferton & Norton

usitatam.- Mon. Angl., tom. ii. p. 610." “ GOLDA” (5th S. vi. 467.)- If Mr. Addy, when

J. P. consulting his Du Cange, had turned to the word Idridgebay. Gordus, which is given as a synonym, he would

PARENTAGE OF THOMAS À BECKET (5th S. vii. have found that the definition of the latter word

28.)—The case respecting the parentage of Becket is Gurges, and that of this Du Cango says, “ pro

is to be seen at sufficient length for common purprie est locus in fluvio arctatus, seu ad construen

poses in Milman's Hist. of Lat. Christ., bk, viii. dum molendinum, seu ad capiendos pisces ”-that

c. viii. vol. v. pp. 22-6, 3rd edit., 1864, where, at is, i mill-dam, or a fish-pond=stew, made by

p. 24, note f, there is a distinct answer to the mounding off a certain space in a stream or river. Taking the word in this sense—the only legitimate

:query : one, as I can see-the meaning of “emundatiothie Polen

1“ Brompton is not the earliest writer who recorded

no this tale; he took it from the Quadrilogus I., but of this goldarum," &c., is clearly this—the cleansing of the date is quite uncertain. The exact date of Brompton the stew or mill-pond, a work of so great import- is unknown. See Preface in Twysden. He goes down ance in the case of monastic establishments that to the end of Richard 11." no wonder it was enforced under very strict pains Dean Milman further shows that the tale was and penalties. Besides this, MR. ADDY assigns to unknown to “any of the seven or eight conteniporary biographers of Becket, most of them his but even on the sea-coast they are not appreciably most intimate friends or his most faithful at- louder than at one hundred miles inland. Mr. tendants.”—P. 23. This is proved at length in Knox Wigat, who lately wrote some notes on the note e, ib., of them and the French poem written subject of these nocturnal noises, having, as he five years after his death. A similar refutation is thinks, detected a faint, rumbling sound after the also made of the theory of the Saxon descent of explosions, attributes them to the meeting of Becket, p. 24, and note g. It is stated :

| thunder-clouds at a very great elevation above the “The father of Becket, according to the distinct earth's surface.

Hugh OWEN. words of one contemporary biographer (anon. Lambeth.), was a native of Rouen, his mother of Caen. Gilbert The subject is a very curious one, and I am was no knight-errant, but a sober merchant, tempted by happy to send a few contributions to a collection commercial advantages to settle in London. His mother of materials which will obviously require su

of materials which will obviously require subseneither boasted of Saracenic blood nor bore the royal name of Matilda. She was the daughter of an honest quenchi

mat quent classification. burgher of Caen.... The parents of Becket, he asserts

| 1. The wonderful bramidos, or subterranean himself, were merchants of unimpeached character, not thunders of Guanaxuato, in Mexico.- Humboldt's of the lowest class."— P. 25.

Essai polit. sur la Nouv. Espagne, cited in his This is proved by the words of Becket himself in note k:

2. The singular detonazioni of the island of “Quod si ad generis mei radicem et progenitores meos Meleda.—Cosmos, ibid.; Wilkinson's Dalmatia intenderis, cives, quidem fuerunt Londinenses, in medio

and Montenegro, i. 266. These are also menconcivium suorum habitantes sine querela, nec omnino infimi.”—Epist. cxxx.

tioned, but as occurring on the banks of a neighED. MARSHALL.

bouring river, in a recently published book, en

titled, I think, A Walls through Bosnia and MYSTERIOUS MOUNTAIN SOUNDS (5th S. vi. Herzegovina. 359.) The following may perhaps be added to 3. The warning sound in the Alps, heard before the list of these. In the bay of Laig, island of some disaster.-Murray's Handbool for SwitzerEigg, one of the Western Hebrides, is to be foundland (1874), p. 100, and I think other authors. a remarkable instance of " musical” or “ringing"

T. W. WEBB. sands, which emit, when moved with the foot, a “shrill, sonorous note," described as somewhat.

Your correspondent will find something to the

I purpose in Brewster's Letters on Natural Magic, resembling the sound given out from a stretched pur

I pp. 241-243, and again in an article, obviously pack-thread when played on with the finger. I have repeatedly heard the phenomenon spoken of

| from the pen of the same writer, in the North by witnesses.

The stateI would refer your correspondent

British Review, vol. iii. pp. 25, 26. for a minute description of it to Hugh Miller's

ments given in the latter of these publications of Cruise of the Betsey, pp. 59-67. He claims this as

the experiences of Lieut. Wellstedt, of the Indian a discovery of his own, and states that it adds a

Navy, at Jebel Narkous, the Mountain of the third to the previously known instances of musical

Bell, and of the eminent geologist, the late Hugh

Miller, on the sandy beach of the island of Eigg, sand, the others being (1) Jebel Narkous, or the Mountain of the Bell, in Arabia Petrea, described

| in the Hebrides, go far to prove that Ehrenberg's by Sir D. Brewster in his Letters on Nat. Magic

explanation of the phenomenon is in all likelihood

| the correct one. (the same as that noted at p. 389); and (2) Reg

Glasgow. Rewan, situated forty miles north of Cabul, described by Sir Alexander Burnes in 1838.

Cf. Aratus, i. 1, 180 :When Mr. Blair has completed his inquiries,

Κορυφαί τε βοώμεναι ούρεος άκραι. we may perhaps learn the value of the challenge | Virgil, Geo., i. 357 :which Hugh Miller held out to all Europe, for an

“ Et aridus altis instrument capable of producing musical sounds

Montibus audiri fragor; aut resonantia longe like those to be heard at the bay of Laig.

Litora misceri.”
A. FERGUSSON, Lieut.-Col.

R. C. U.S. Club, Edinburgh.

Cork. Of all the strange and mysterious sounds which THE JACOBITE STANDARDS (5th S. vii. 22.)— astonish and puzzle us, none have given more Col. FERGUSSON may accept the following evidence reason for speculation and research than those loud bearing on the use, by the Young Pretender, of explosions, similar to the distant boom of a heavy the motto “ Tandem Triumphans," and the emgun, heard in India during the rainy season, in the blenis of a crown, or crowns, and a coffin. In the Sunderbunds, at Backergunj, at Dacca, and in text quoted from Robert Chambers's work, the other localities, called-why no one can explain- use of these distinctions seems to be denied. No the guns of Barrisaul. These sounds, usually heard | doubt more than one banner, with varying bearin the night, seem always to come from the south;ings, was employed during the Scottish raid of

'45, but the evidence afforded by contemporary assumed more serious proportions in 1841 by the engravings is of the highest value. I give the issue of sixty millions of piastres, bearing twelve numbers from the British Museum Catalogue of per cent. interest, payable every six months. In Satirical Prints: No. 2788, “ Tandem Trium- the following year the liquidation of a portion of phans, translated by the Duke of Cumberland,” this issue, by Izzet Pasha, the Minister of Finance, published by C. Corbet, “May ye 7th, 1746." reduced the interest upon the outstanding caimés This engraving comprises a design representing, to three per cent. In the course of the year 1953 with great vigour, the defeat of the Highlanders, the paper currency had reached the enormous and in the hands of Sullivan, the Pretender's amount of 176 millions of piastres. standard-bearer, a flag showing a coffin surmounted

WILLIAM PLATT. by a crown. No. 2662, The Rebellion Displayed, Conservative Club. “Publish'd according to Act of Parliament, 1 Nov., 1745," comprises the Pretender's banner, borne by

Green THURSDAY (5th S. vi. 491.)-Gründonan ass, and displaying three crowns above a coffin,

nerstag-=dies viridium, may be accounted for by with the inscription “Tandem Triumphans, Anglice

din the symbolic meaning of “green”=sinless, in A Dog will have his Day." No. 2799, Townley

Luke xxii. 31 ; cf. French - jeudi absolu." In and Fletcher, represents Temple Bar, over which

the Lutheran Church it is "the day of absolution," structure a demon flies, holding the Pretender's

or “Ablasstag," preparatory to the communion banner, which bears three crowns above a coffin

celebrated on the following day. The day before and the motto, “ A Crown or a Grave.” There is

Maundy Thursday has been styled “der Krumme no publication line to No. 2799, but it is a con

Mittwoch," Krumme being a popular corruption of temporary print. The motto in English may help

the French carême. Some writers explain in the to answer Col. FERGUSson's query, “ What is the same way

same way the origin of grüne. exact meaning of the latter” flag? The verses

G. A. Schrumpf.

Tettenhall College. engraved below the design are significant :“ Observe the Banner which would all Enslave,

It is called Green Thursday (Gründonnerst 19) Which Ruin'd Traytors, did so proudly Wave, in German either on account of an ancient national

The Devil seems the Project to Despise," &c. custom of plucking and eating green spring herbs There are other prints exhibiting these emblems on that day, or, as others say, because in the and that audacious motto, but, doubtless, Nos. Lutheran Church divine service is on Miundy 2662, 2788, and 2799 will suffice.

Thursday begun with the second verse of the

F. G. STEPHENS. twenty-third Psalm. The former reason seems the “ CAIMÉ” (5th S. vii. 19.)- A caimé (melius

... more probable. NICOLAI C. Schol', Jun.

| Chorlton-cum-Hardy. kaimé*) varies in value from fifty to one thousand piastres, t circulates like a bank note, and, as it SEAFOUL Gibson (5th S. v. 468 ; vi. 18, 438, bears interest and can be offered in lieu of taxes, | 545.)-I think it very probable that this name corresponds to our exchequer bill.

had its origin from some disaster to the parents at The three million Turkish pounds lately put sea. I know the case of a boy whose name is Seainto circulation consist of caimés of five, ten, born, and on inquiring how he came to bear it, I fifty, and one hundred piastres, numbered and was told that his father is a merchant captain, and stamped by the Imperial Ottoman Bank, and | having taken his wife with him upon it voyage, redeemable in metallic currency.

the child was born at sea, to commemorate which This paper money, adopted to a trifling extent levent he was named as above. by the Porte not earlier than the years 1828-1829,5

R. P. HAMPTON ROBERTS. * Kareme, the feminine form of the Arabic participle ON THE USE OF THE WORDS "SUPERIOR" AND kaiem, signifies, in the Turkish language-1. " The foot “INFERIOR" (5th S. vii. 8.)– The authoress of of an auinal"; 2. A page " (of a book), “a sheet of ladom Ped

! | Adam Bede has something to say about the word paper,” “ a letter,” “a written report” or “notice"; 3. “ Any given hour of the day.”

superior in one of her later novels, which perhaps † The piastre (ghroosh or ghooroosh), originally equi- may be of interest to your correspondent C. 0. B.: valent to the Spanish piastre, has gradually depreciated! "But I shall not marry any Middlemarch young in value since the year 1774, and at the present day is man.' only equal to 2d. or 2 d. One hundred piastres of Tur- «"So it seems, my love, for you have as good as re. key are worth, on an average of the exchanges, about fused the pick of them; and if there 's better to be had, one pound sterling.

I'm sure there's no girl better deserves it.' The Turkish lira or pound in gold may be taken as "• Excuse me, mamma,- I wish you would not say equal to 18s. or 18s. 2d. of our money.

“ the pick of them.”, s In 1829 a five-piastre piece (beshlik from besh, five), «Why, what else are they?'. as well gold as silver, was coined at the Imperial mint I mean, mamma, it's rather a vulgar expression.' to pay to Russia the war indemnity, amounting to 5,500,0001. For ti

For the payment of considerable sums, bags| mint, and are passed from one merchant to another at or purses of five hundred piastres are issued froin the the value stated, without being opened.

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