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and the Bay of Bengal on the E.; and by Persia and the Indian Ocean on the W. The chief mountains are those of Caucasus, Naugracut, and Balagate, which run almost the whole length of India from N. to S. Many of the mountains produce diamonds, rubies, amethysts, and other precious stones. This great country, which is said to be extremely populous, contains inhabitants of various complexions, manners, and religions. The manufactures of India are chiefly muslin, calico, and silk. They have some merchant-ships of their own, and traffic with the Countries bordering upon India, and particularly with Persia. The Europeans usually purchase most of their manufactures. See HINDUSTAN.
INDIA BEYOND GANGES, is situated be tween the latitudes of 1 and 30 degrees N. and between the longitudes of 89 and 109 degrees E. Great part of these limits is covered by the sea. It is bounded on the N. by Thibet and China; by China and the Chinesian Sea on the E.; by the same sea and the Streights of Malacca on the S.; and by the Bay of Bengal and part of India on the W. In the north of this country the air is dry and healthful; but the southern provinces are very hot and moist, especially in the valleys and low lands near the sea and rivers.
INDIA COMPANY. See COMPANY. INDIAN ARROW Roor, in botany. MARANTA.
INDIAN CORN, in botany. See ZEA. INDIAN FIG, in botany. See CACTUS. INDIAN GAD TREE, in botany. See FICUS. INDIAN MALLOw, in botany. See SIDA. INDIAN OAK, in botany. See TECTONA. INDIAN REED, in botany. See CANNA. INDIAN CRESS. See NASTURTIUM INDICUM, and TRAPŒOLUM.
INDIAN DATE PLUM. The fruit of the Diospyros lotus of Linnéus. When ripe it has an agreeable taste, and is very nutritious. See DIOSPYROS.
INDIAN LEAF. See CASSIA LIGNEA.
INDIAN RUBBER. The substance known by the names Indian rubber, elastic gum, Cayenne resin, cautchoc, and by the French caoutchouc, is prepared from the juice of the Siphonia elastica, foliis ternatis elleptisis integerrimis subtus canis longe peliolatis. Suppl. plant. The manner of obtaining this juice is by making incisions through the bark of the lower part of the trunk of the tree, from which the fluid resin issues in great abundance, appearing of a milky whiteness as it flows into the vessel placed to receive it, and into which it is conducted by means of a tube or leaf fixed in the incision, and supported with clay. On exposure to the air this ilky juice gradually inspissates into a soft, reddish, elastic resin. It is moulded by the Indians in South America into various figures, but is commonly brought to Europe in that
of spear-shaped bottles, which are said to be formed by spreading the juice of the Siphonia over a proper mould of clay; as soon as one layer is dry another is added, until the bottle be of the thickness desired. It is then exposed to a thick dense smoke, or to a fire, until it becomes so dry as not to stick to the fingers, when by means of certain instruments of iron or wood it is ornamented on the outside with various figures. This being done, it remains only to pick out the mould, which is easily effected by softening it with water. Indian rubber may be subjected to the action of some of the most powerful menstrua, without suffering the least change, while its pliability and elasticity are eminently peculiar to itself. Its proper menstruum is known to some persons in England, who keep it a profound secret, and prepare the gum into beautiful catheters, bougies, sy. ringes, pessaries, &c. See CAOUTCHOUC and SIPHONIA.
INDIAN GRASS. A substance used in ang. ling, and without which many kinds of fishing lines cannot be complete. It consists of a fine thread or cord composed of the tendrils issuing from the ovary of the squalus canicula or dog-fish. See SQUALUS.
INDIANA, a tract of country situated on the Ohio, in the state of Virginia, claimed by William Trent, and others, as a compensation for losses sustained in the year 1768. This claim has been laid before congress, and in some degree allowed, but it does not appear to be yet finally determined.
INDIANS, the name by which the abori gines of America are generally called. These people are scattered through the extent of the two prodigious continents, and divided into an infinite number of nations and tribes; differing very little from each other in their manners and customs, and all form a very striking picture of antiquity. The Indians, or people of America, are tall and straight in their limbs, beyond the propor tion of most nations. Their bodies are strong; but of such a species of vigour, as is rather adapted to endure much hardship than to continue long at any servile work': it is the strength of a beast of prey, rather than that of a beast of burden." bodies and heads are flattish, the effect of art. Their features are regular, but their countenances fierce; their hair long, black, lank, and as strong as that of a horse, but no beards. The colour of their skins a reddish brown, admired among them, and improved by the constant use of bear's fat and paint. Their only occupations are hunting and war; agriculture is left to the women; merchandise they despise. There are no people amongst whom the laws of hospitality are more sacred, or executed with more generosity and goodwill. But to the enemies of his country, or to those who have privately offended, the Indian is
implacable. No length of time is sufficient to allay his resentment; no distance of place great enough to protect the object. The Indians have scarce any temples among them; though we hear, indeed, of some, and those extremely magnificent, amongst the ancient Mexicans and Peruvians: but those were civilized nations. They hold the existence of a Supreme Being eternal and incorruptible, who has power over all. Satisfied with owning this, which is traditionary amongst them, they give him no sort of worship. Though without religion, they abound in superstitions; as it is common for those to do whose subsistence depends, like theirs, upon fortune. Being great observers of omens and dreams, and pryers into futurity with great eagerness, they abound in diviners, augurs, and magicians, whom they rely much upon in all matters that concern them, whether of health, war, or hunting. Liberty, in its fullest extent, is the darling passion of the Indians: to this they sacrifice every thing. This is what makes a life of uncertainty and want supportable to them; and their education is directed in such a manner, as to cherish it to the utmost. This free disposition is general; and though some tribes are found in America with a head, whom we call king, his power is rather persuasive than coercive; and he is reverenced as a father, more than feared as a monarch. Among the Five Nations, or the Iroquois, the most celebrated common-wealth of North America, and in some other nations, there is no other qualification absolutely necessary for their head men, but age, with experience, and ability in their affairs. Every thing is transacted among them with much ceremony, which contributes to fix all transactions the better in their memory. In order to help this, they have belts of small shells, or beads of different colours, which have all a differeat meaning, according to their colour or arrangement. At the end of every matter which they discourse upon, when they treat with a foreign state, they deliver one of these belts. If they should omit this ceremony, what they say passes for nothing. These belts are carefully treasured up in each town, and serve as the public records of the nation; and to these they occasionally have recourse, when any contests happen between them and their neighbours. The same council of their elders which regulates whatever regards the external policy of the state, has the charge likewise of its internal peace and order. The loss of any one of their people, whether by natural death or by war, is lamented by the whole town he belongs to. The whole village attends the body to the grave, which is interred, being dressed in the most sumptuous ornaments. With the body of the deceased are placed his bow and arrows, with what he valued most in his life, and provisions for the long journey which he is to take; for they uni
versally hold the immortality of the soul, though their idea of it is gross. Though the women in America have generally the laborious part of the economy upon themselves, yet they are far from being the slaves which they appear to be; and are not all subject to the great subordination in which they are placed in countries where they seem to be more respected. No nations of the Indians are without a regular marriage, in which there are many ceremonies: the principal of which is the bride's presenting the bridegroom with a plate of their corn. Though incontinent before wedlock, the chastity of their women after marriage is remarkable. When the ancients among the Indians have resolved upon a war, they do not always declare what nation they are determined to attack, that the enemy upon whom they really intend to fall, may be off his guard. Nay they even sometimes let years pass over, without committing any act of hostility, that the vigilance of all may be unbent, by the long continuance of the watch, and the uncertainty of the danger. In the mean time, they are not idle at home: the principal captain summons the youths of the town to which he belongs: the war-kettle is set on the fire, the war-songs and dances begin: the hatchet is sent to all the villages of the same nation, and to all its allies: the fire-catches, and the war-songs are heard in all parts. The qualities in an Indian war are vigilance and attention, to give and to avoid surprise; also patience, and strength, to endure the intolerable fatigues and hardships which always attend it. The fate of their prisoners is the most severe of all: during the greatest part of their journey homewards, they suffer no injury; but when they arrive at the territories of the conquering state, or at those of their allies, the people from every village meet them, and think that they show their attachment to their friends, by their barbarous treatment of the unhappy prisoners. It is usual to offer a slave to each house that has lost a friend, giving the preference according to the greatness of the loss. The person who has taken the captive attends him to the door of the cottage to which he is delivered; and with him he gives a belt of wampum, to show that he has fulfilled the purpose of the expedition, in supplying the loss of a citizen; when he is either preserved and entertained as a friend, or put to death with the most horrid torments. Don Ulloa, in his celebrated voy. age to South America, draws a very differ ent, and at the same time a very melancholy picture of the Indians, in the province of Quito, where the cruel usage of their Spanish masters has quite destroyed their former spirit and love of liberty, and rendered them stupid, lazy, and contemptible. Nothing can inove them, or alter their minds; even interest here loses all its power: it being common for them to decline doing
some little act of service, though offered a very considerable reward, Fear cannot stimulate, respect induce, or punishment compel them; being proof against every attempt to rouse them from their natural indolence, in which they seem to look down with contempt on the wisest of mortals. A great part of the barbarism and rusticity of the minds of the Indians must, indeed, be imputed to the want of culture; for they who in some parts have enjoyed that advantage, are found to be no less rational than other men and if they do not attain to all the politeness of civilized nations, they at least think properly. The Indians of the mission of Paraguay are, among others, remarkable instances of this; who, from an ambulatory and savage manner of living, have been reduced to order, reason, and religion. The disease which makes the greatest havoc among them is the smallpox, which is so fatal, that few escape it; accordingly it is looked upon in this country as a pestilence. This distemper is not continual, as in other nations; seven, eight, or more years passing without its being heard of: but when it prevails, towns and villages are soon thinned of their inhabitants.
INDICANT. a. (indicans, Lat.) Showing; pointing out; that directs what is to be done in any disease.
To INDICATE. v. a. (indico, Latin.) 1. To show; to point out. 2. (In physic.) To point out a remedy.
INDICATION. s. (indicatio, Latin.) 1. Mark; token; sign; note; symptom (Atterbury). 2. Discovery made; intelligence given (Bentley). 3. Explanation; display (Bacon).
INDICATION, in medicine, is that which demonstrates in a disease what ought to be done. It is three-fold; preservative, which preserves health: curative, which expels a present disease; and vital, which respects the powers and reasons of diet. The scope from which indications are taken or determined is comprehended in this distich: --Ars, ætas, regio, complexio, virtus, Mos et symptoma, repletio, tempus et usus. INDICATIVE. a. (indicativus, Latin.) Showing; informing, pointing out.
INDICATIVE, in grammar, the first mood, or mauner of conjugating a verb, by which we simply affirm, deny, or ask some thing; as, amant, they love; non amant, they do not love; amas tu, dost thou love?
INDICATIVELY. ad. In such a manuer as shows or betokens.
INDICATOR, (Indicator, õris, m. from indico, to point; so named from its office of extending the index or fore-finger). Extensor indicis. Extensor secundi internodii indicis, proprius vulgo indicator of Doug las. An extensor muscle of the fore-finger, situated chiefly on the lower and posterior part of the fore-arm. It arises by an acute fleshy beginning from the middle of the
posterior part of the ulna, its tendon passes under the same ligament with the extensor digitorum communis, with part of which it is inserted into the posterior part of the fore-finger.
To INDICT, See ENDITE, and its deriva
INDICTION. s. (indiction, Fr. indico, Lat.) 1. Declaration; proclamation (Bacon). 2. (In chronology.) The indiction, instituted by Constantine the Great, is a cycle of tributes, for fifteen years, and by it accounts were kept. Afterward, in memory of the victory obtained by Constantine over Mezentius, 8 Cal. Oct. 312, by which freedom was given to christianity, the council of Nice, for the honour of Constantine, ordained that the accounts of years should be no longer kept by the Olympiads, but by the indiction, which hath its epocha A. D. 313. Jan. 1.
INDICTMENT, is a written accusation of one or more persons of a crime or misdemeanor, preferred to, and presented on oath by a grand jury. 4 Black, 302.
An indictment may be found on the oath of one witness only, unless it is for high treason, which requires two witnesses; and unless in any instance it is otherwise specially directed by acts of parliament. 2 Haw.
The sheriff of every county is bound to return to every session of the peace, and every commission of oyer and terminer, and of general gaol-delivery, 24 good and lawful men of the county, some out of every hundred, to inquire, present, do, and execute, all those things which on the part of our lord the king shall then and there be commanded therein. As inany as appear upon this pannel are sworn of the grand jury, to the amount of twelve at the least, and not more than twenty-three, that twelve may be a majority. This grand jury is previously instructed in the articles of their inquiry, by a charge from the judge on the bench. They then withdraw from court to sit and receive indictments, which are preferred to them in the name of the king, but at the suit of any private prosecutor; and they are only to hear evidence on behalf of the prosecution; for the finding an indict ment is only in the nature of an inquiry or accusation, which is afterwards to be tried and determined; and the grand jury are only to inquire upon their oaths whether there is sufficient cause to call upon the party to answer it.
It seems generally agreed, that the grand jury may not find part of an indictment true and part false; but must either find a true bill or ignoramus for the whole; and if they take upon them to find it specially or conditionally, or to be true for part only and not for the rest, the whole is void, and the party cannot be tried upon it, but ought to be indicted anew. 2 Haw. 210.
All capital crimes whatever, and all kinds
of inferior crimes which are of a public nature, as misprisons, contempts, disturbances of the peace, oppressions, and all other misdemeanors whatever of a public evil example against the common law, may be indicted, but no injuries of a private nature, unless they in some degree concern the king. And generally where a statute prohibits a matter of public grievance to the liberties and security of a subject, or commands a matter of public convenience, as the repairing of the common streets of the town, &c. every disobedience of such statute is punishable, not only at the suit of the party grieved, but also by way of indictment, for contempt of the statute, unless such method of proceeding shall manifestly appear to be excluded by it. Yet if the party offending has been fined in an action brought by the party (as it is said he may in every action for doing a thing prohibited by statute), such fine is a good bar to the indictment, because by the fine the end of the statute is satisfied; otherwise he would be liable to a second fine for the same offence.
2 Inst. 55.
If several offenders commit the same offence, though in law they are several offences in relation to the several offenders, yet they may be joined in one indictment; as if several commit a robbery, or burglary, or murder. 2 H. H. 173.
No indictment for high treason, or misprison thereof (except indictments, for counterfeiting the king's coin, seal, sign, or signet), nor any process or return thereupon, shall be quashed for mis-reciting, mis-spelling, false or improper Latin, unless exception concerning the same is taken and made in the respective court where the trial shall be, by the prisoner or his counsel assigned, before any evidence given in open court on such indictment; nor shali any such mis-reciting, mis-spelling, false or improper Latin, after conviction on such indictment, be any cause or stay, or arrest of judgment; but nevertheless, any judgment on such indictment shall be liable to be reversed on writ of error as formerly.
An indictment accusing a man in general terms, without ascertaining the particular fact laid to his charge, is insufficient; for no one can know what defence to make to a charge which is uncertain, nor can plead it in bar or abatement of a subsequent prosecution; neither can it appear that the facts given in evidence against a defendant on such a general accusation, are the same of which the indictors have accused him; nor can it judicially appear to the court what punishment is proper for an offence so loosely expressed. 2 Haw. 266.
It is therefore best to lay all the facts in the indictment as near to the truth as possible; and not to say, in an indictment for a small assault (for instance) wherein the person assaulted received little or no bodily hurt, that such a one, with swords, staves,
and pistols, beat, bruised, and wounded him, so that his life was greatly despaired of; not to say in an indictment for a highway being obstructed, that the king's subjects cannot go thereon without manifest danger of their lives, and the like: which kind of words not being necessary, may stagger an honest man upon his oath to find the fact as so laid.
No indictment can be good without expressly showing some place wherein the of fence was committed, which must appear to have been within jurisdiction of the court. 2 Haw. 236.
There are several emphatical words which the law has appropriated for the description of an offence, which no circumlocution will supply; as feloniously, in the indictment of any felony; burglariously, in an indictment of burglary, and the like. 2 H. H. 184.
An indictment on the black act for shooting at any person must charge that the offence was done wilfully and maliciously.
By 10 and W. c. 23, it is enacted, that no clerk of the assize, clerk of the peace, or other officer, shall take any money of any person bound over to give evidence against a traitor or felon for the discharge of his recognizance, nor take more than 2s. for drawing any bill of indictment against any such felon, on pain of 51. to the party grieved, with full costs. And if he shall draw a defective bill, he shall draw a new one gratis on the like penalty.
With respect to drawing indictments for other misdemeanors, not being treason or felony, no fee is limited by the statute; the same, therefore, depends on the custom and ancient usage.
Every person charged with any felony or other crime, who shall on his trial be ac quitted, or against whom no indictment shall be found by the grand jury, or who shall be discharged by proclamation for want of prosecution, shall be immediately set at large in open court, without payment of any fee to the sheriff or gaoler; but in lieu thereof, the treasurer, on a certificate signed by one of the judges or justices before whom such prisoner shall have been discharged, shall pay out of the general rate of the county or district, such sum as has been usually paid, not exceeding 13s. 4d.
But an action cannot be brought by the person acquitted against the prosecutor of the indictment, without obtaining a copy of the record of his indictment and acquittal; which in prosecutions for felony it is not usual to grant, if there is the least probable cause to found such prosecution upon. For it would be a very great discouragement to the public justice of the kingdom, if prosecutors who had a tolerable ground of suspicion were liable to be sued at law whenever their indictments miscarried. But an action on the case for a malicious prosecution may be founded on such an indictment whereon an acquittal can lie, as if it is rejected by the grand jury, or
is coram non judice, or is insufficiently drawn; for it is not the danger of the plaintiff, but the scandal, vexation, and expense, upon which this action is founded. However, any probable cause for preferring it is sufficient to justify the defendant, provided it does not appear that the prosecution was malicious. 3 Black. 126.
INDICUM, in antiquity, a word denoting a blue colour or pigment used in Rome, probably the same as our Indigo.
INDICUS COLOR, a term used by several ancient writers to express black.
INDIES (East). These are divided into India within the river Ganges, and India beyond the river Ganges. The various provinces and kingdoms of both the divisions of India are described under their respective
INDIES (West). Islands of the Atlantic, which extend from the coast of Florida, in a curve, to the coast of Surinam, in South America, from 58. 20. to 85. 30. west longitude from Greenwich, and from 10. to 27. 50. north latitude: making Cuba the westerly boundary, the Bahamas the most northerly; and fixing the easterly point at the island of Barbadoes, and the southerly at Trinidad. The name was given by Columbus; and is not unfrequently applied to the whole of America. Most of these islands are treated of separately. Sce CUBA, &c.
INDIFFERENCE. s. (indifference, F. INDIFFERENCY. indifferentia, Lat.) 1. Neutrality; suspension; equipoise or freedom from motives on either side (Locke). 2. Impartiality (Whitgift). 3. Negligeace; want of affection; unconcernedness (Addison). 4. State in which no moral or phy sical reason preponderates (Hooker).
INDIFFERENT. a. (indifferent, Fr. indifferens, Latin.) 1. Neutral;"not determined on either side (Addison). 2. Unconcerned; inattentive; regardless (Rogers). 3. Not having such difference as that the one is for its own sake preferable to the other (Locke). 4. Impartial; disinterested (Davies). 5. Passable; having mediocrity; of a middling state (Roscommon). 6. In the same sense it has the force of an adverb; as, indifferent well (Shakspeare).
INDIFFERENTLY. ad. (indifferenter. Lat.) 1. Without distinction; without preference (Newton). 2. Equally; impartially (Com. Prayer). 3. In a neutral state; with out wish or aversion (Shaks). 4. Not well; tolerably; passibly; middlingly (Carew.) INDIGENCE. 8. (indigence, Fr. indiINDIGENCY. gentia, Lat.) Want; pe nury; poverty (Burnet).
INDIGENOUS. a. (indigène, Fr.indegena, Lat.) Native to a country; originally produced or born in a region (Arbuthnot).
I'NDIGENT, a. (indigens, Lat.) 1. Poor: needy; necessitous (Addison). 2. In want; wanting (Philips). 3. Void; empty (Bacon).
a. (indigeste, Fr. indiINDIGE STED.) gestus, Latin.) 1. Not separated into distinct parts; not regularly disposed (Raleigh). 2. Not formed, or shaped (Shakspeare). 3. Not well considered and methodised (Hook). 4. Not concocted in the stomach (Dryden). 5. Not brought to suppuration (Wiseman).
INDIGE/STIBLE. a. (from in and digestible.) Not conquerable in the stomach (Arbuthnot). INDIGESTION. s. (indigestion, French.) TION. 1. A morbid weakness of the stomach; want of concoctive power. See DIGESTION. 2. The state of meats unconcocted (Temple).
To INDIGITATE. v. a. (indigito, Lat.) To point out; to show by the fingers (Brown). INDIGITATION. 8. (from indigitate.) The act of pointing out or showing (More). INDIGN. a. (indigne, Fr.) Not in use. 1. Unworthy; undeserving (Bacon). Bringing indignity; disgraceful (Shaks). INDIGNANT. a. (indignans, Lat.) Angry; raging; inflamed at once with anger and disdain (Arbuthnot).
INDIGNATIOŃ. 8. (indignation, French; indignatio, Latin.) 1. Anger mingled with contempt or disgust (Clarendon). 2. The anger of a superiour (Kings). 3. The effect of anger (Shakspeare).
INDIGNITY. s. (indignitas, Lat.) Contumely; contemptuous injury; violation of right accompanied with insult (Hooker). INDIGO, in botany. See INDIGOFERA.
INDIGO, Bastard. See AMORPHA.
INDIGOFERA. In botany, a genus of the class diadelphia, order decandria. Calyx spreading; reel of the corol with a subulate, spreading spur on each side; legume linear. Fifty-one species, chiefly natives of the Cape and India: they may be thus subdivided : A. Leaves simple. B. Leaves ternate. C. Leaves quinate.
D. Leaves pinnate. This last sub-division comprising by far the greatest number. The stems of most of the species are shrubby; and the flowers red or purple.
The most important of the whole number by far, is I. tinctoria. Common indigo plant -a native of the East Indies, with pinnate leaves in four pairs, oblong, glabrous; racemes shorter than the leaf; legumes cylin drical, slightly curved; stem shrubby. The plant requires a rich, and rather a moist soil, well and deeply dug. The seeds that resemble grains of gunpowder are sown in little furrows, about the breadth of the hoe, at the depth of two or three inches, in a straight line, and a foot asunder. The seeds may be sown in any season, but the spring is generally preferred. When sown the ground should be well watered, and the weeds carefully plucked up as they make their appearance. The seeds shoot above the surface in three or four days; and the whole plant is ripe in