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BERIZA.

ORTHRUS, or Orthos, a dog which be- the last is so closely connected with the general longing to Geryon. He had two heads, and history of vegetables and animals, from petriface was sprung fróin the union of Echidna and tions, or other alterajons of the various materials Typhon. He was destroyed by Hercules. belonging to which kingdoms they usually origiORTIVE (ortivus.) In astronomy.

Or. nate, as to be more con eniently treated of under tive, or eastern amplitude, is an arch of the have been selected for the two sciences of native

a separate inquiry: and hence two distinct names horizon intercepted between the point where a

and adventitious fossils, and while the former has star rises, and the east point of the horizon, or

been called oryctognosy, the latter has been deno. point where the horizon and equator intersect. minated oryciology. The first is distinctly and See AMPLITUDE.

necessarily a branch of mineralogy, and has al. ORTOLAN. in ornithology. See Em• ready been treated of as such under that article.

The second we have reserved for the present OR IS. s. Refuse; things left or thrown place, and shall treat of it by itself. lo doing away: obsolete (Jonson).

this we shall have occasion to diaw very largely ORTON, a town in Westmoreland, with a upon Mr. Parkinson's very excellent work the market on Wednesdav, 12 miles S.W. of Ap- Organic Remains of a former Wo:ld, to which pleby, and 271 N.N.W. of London. Lon. curious plates, which we have already intro2. 40 W. Lat. 54. 28 N. OR TYGIA, a small island of Sicily, within this work, in elucidation of the subject before us;

duced, or shall have occasion to introduce, into the bay of Syracuse, which formed once one of and we shall fill up the picture from M. Cuvier's the four quarters of that great city. It was in very accurate and excellent papers, published this island that the celebrated fountain of Are- chiefly in the different volumes of the Annales du thusa arose.-2. An ancient name of the island Museum d'Histoire Naturelle. of Delos. Some suppose that it received this It is curious to observe how different an im. name from Latova, who Aed thither when pression the same natural appearances have made changed into a

on the human mind in different stages of its imthe pursuits of Juno.

quail (795) by Jupiter, to avoid
Diana was called Orty- proven ent. A phænomenon, which in one age

has excited the greatest terror, has in another been gia, as being born there. ORTZA, a town of Lithuania, in the pala- the things which have at one time led to the most

an object of calm and deliberate observation; and tinate of Witepsk, with a castle, seated at the extravagant fiction, have, at another, only served confuence of the Oresi and Dnieper, 50 miles to define the boundaries of knowledge. The same W. of Smolensko. Lon. 31.5 E. Lat. 54.45 N.

comet which from the age of Julius Cæsar had ORVIETO, a town of Italy, capital of a three times spread terror and dismay through the territory of the same name, in the patrimony of nations of the earth, appeared a fourth time in the St. Peter, with a bishop's see and a magnifi- age of Newton, to instruct mankind, and to exemcent palace. In this place is a deep well, plity the universali y of the laws which that great into which mules descend, by one pair of stairs, interpreter of nature had discovered. The same to fetch up water, and ascend by another. It fossil remains which 10 St. Angustine or Father is seated on a craggy rock, near the convence Kircher seemed to prove the former existence of of the rivers Paglia and Chiuna, 20 miles N. w. giants of the human species, were found by Pallas

and Cuvier to ascertain the nature and character of Viterbo, and 50 N. by W. of Rome. Lon. of certain genera and species of quadrupeds which 12. 20 E. Lat. 42. 42 N.

have now entirely disappeared. ORUS, or Horus, one of the gods of the

From a very early period, indeed, such hones Egyptians, son of (-iris and of Isis. He as. have afforded a masure of the credulity, not of sisted his mother in avenging his father, who the vulgar only, but of the philosophers. Theohad been murdered by Typhon. Orus was phrastus, one of the ancients who had most devotskilled in medicine, he was acquainted with

ed himself to the study of nature, believed, as futurity, and he made the good and the happi- Pliny tells us, that bones were a sort of mineral ness of his subjects the sole object of his yo. production that originated and grew in the earth. vernment. He was the emblem of the sun

St. Augustine says, that he found on the sea-shore

near Urica a fossil buman tooth, which was a among the Egyptians, and he was generally re

hundred times the size of the tooth of any person presented as an infant, swathed in variegated living; and Pliny tells us, that by an earthquake in clothes. In one hand he holds a staff, which Crete a part of a mountain was opened, which terminates in the head of a hawk, in the other discovered a skeleton sixteen cubits, or twentya whip with two thongs.

four feet long, supposed to be that of Orion. XéORWELL, a river in Suffolk, which runs nophanes, more ihan four hundred years before S.E. by Ipswich, and uniting with the Stour Chriss, was led to the belief of the eternity of the forms the fine harbour of Harwich. Above universe, by discovering the remains of different Ipswich it is called the Gipping.

marine animals imbedded in rocks, and under the ORYCTOLOGY. (from opvoow, to dig, and surface of The earth. Herodotus ascertained the 2.0005, a treatise. The doctrine or science of fos- existence of fossilsbells in the mountains of Egypt, sils.

and was thereby induced to conclude that the sea Fossils, or substances dug out of the bowels of

must have once covered those parts. In the pythe earth, are of two kinds; native, or those that ramids of Egypt, mentioned by this author, and belong to the mineral kingdom naturally; and ad- which had been built at so early a period that no ventitious, or those that have been incidentally in- satisfactory accoun's could be derived from traditroduced into it, and have become a part of it. tion respecting their erection, the stones were Both these kinds of materials may be regarded as found to contain the remains of marine animals constituting distinct branches of miveralogy; but and particularly of such as exist no longer in

recent state, and differ essentially from all known concrete again, and form true corals there as well animals. These were supposed by Strabo, who as in the sea water. Doubtless it did so ; but that saw the fragments of these stones laying around matter was in so small a quantity, and bore so the pyramids, to be the petrified remains of the little a proportion to the mineral and metallic, lentils which had been used for food by the with which it was then mixed and confused, a workmen. Eratosthenes, Xanthus of Lydia, and now rarely, if ever, to be met with." (Letters on Strabo have all noticed and variously commented Fossils, by Dr. Woodward, p. 82.) At present upon the existence of animal remains thus wonder. no one hesitates al considering all organised fossil fully preserved. In the worlus of Pliny many bodies as having existed during a former state of fossil bodies are mentioned, particularly the bu- this globe, and having been then endued with the cardia, resembling an or's heart, but which was energies of vegetable or animal life. doubtlessly a cast formed in a bivalve shell; glos- Various appellations have been employed for sopetra, bearing the form of a tongue, and sup- the purpose of distinguishing these bodies from posed to fall from the moon, when in its wane; those minerals which do not owe their forms to hammites, resembling the spawn of fish; horns of animal or vegetable organization. ammon, resembling, in form, the ram's-horn; le. Figured stones (lapides figurati et idiomorphui) pidotes, like the scales of fishes; meconites, bearing and diluvian stones (lapides diluviani) were terms a resemblance to the seeds of poppies; brontia, to well chosen by the earlier mineralogists to desig the head of a tortoise; spongites, to sponge; phy- nate these bodies, of the peculiar forms of which, cites, to sea-weeds, or rushes, &c. Although many and of their having probably obtained those forms were convinced, by the exact resemblance which from some changes depending on the deluge, they several of these substances bore to different spe- only could, with any propriety, speak. The term cies of marine animals, that these must be the re- fossil comprising every mineral substance dug out mains of such animals, and must have been depo- of the earth, it was thought necessary to distinsited on these spots, at a period when they were guish these by the term adventitious or extranecovered by the sea; others, unable to comprehend ous. To this generally adopted mode of distinca circumstance so inexplicable as the existence of tion, Mr. Parkinson objects. (Organic Remains, the sea over some of the highest mountains, chose vol. i. p. 34.) rather to have recourse to an apparently more The term extraneous, he observes, denotes that easy mode of explonation, by attributing their the substance spoken of is foreign to the region in formation to the energies of certain occult powers, which it is found; a sense in which, he thinks, it such as the vis plastica, vis formativa, and vis la: cannot, with propriety, be applied to such bodies pidificativa.

as are almost deprived, not only of their primiThe formation of these bodies was also attribut- tive form, but of their original constituent prioed, by our countryman, Dr. Plot, to certain plas- ciples. In these cases, where so considerable a tic powers inherent in some saline bodies; and Dr. degree of naturalization, as it were, has tatea Woodward, one of our latest writers on these sub- place, the substance, he conceives, can no longer stances, although aware that the situations in merit an epithet implying their being foreign to which these bodies were found could only be ex- the regions in which they are found. Instances plained by the powerful and extensive effects of of the impropriety of this employment of the the deluge, found himself obliged also to have re- term he instances in such of the jaspers and semicourse to an occult plastic power to explain the opals as have derived their origin from wood; to formation of some of these substances. *" There which the epithet of extraneous does not apper are,” he observes, “ various phænomena, that to be strictly applicable. The term adventitions, plainly shew that when they were brought forth as implying the result of chance or accident, ke at the deluge the earth was destroyed, all the thinks ought never to be applied to these subsolids of it, metals, minerals, stone, and the rest, stances; since, in all nature's works, there exist dissolved, taken up into the water, and there sus- not stronger proofs of the provident design of the stained along with the sea-shells, and other extra- Almighty Creator, than in the apparently casual neous bodies ; till at length all settled down again, disposition of these substances. To the term peand formed the strata of the present earth. The trifaction he objects, because a conversion into shells, and other extraneous bodies, being thus stone only is here expressed; whereas, in many lodged among this stony and other mineral mat. instances, the substances of which the fossil is ters, that afterwards became solid; when this composed differs as much from stone, as from the comes now to be broke up, it exhibits impressions matter of which the body was originally compas of the shells, and other bodies lodged in it; show- ed. Fossils he considers as of two kiods, primary ing even the hardest of it to have been once in a and secondary; among the former he places those state of solution, soft, and susceptible of impres- bodies which appear to have been, ab initio, the sion.” (Preface to Catalogue of English Fossils, natives of the subterranean regions ; and under p. 3.) But unable otherwise to oppose the opi- the latter he disposes those substances, which, nion of Dr. Buttner, that the fossil corals were though now subjects of the mineral kingdom, bear actually corals which had existed before the flood, indubitable marks of having been originally either he had recourse to the supposition of their having of an animal or vegetable nature. The term fossil, derived their forms from a second arrangement of however, which implies that the organized subtheir component parts, whilst in the waters of the stance under examination has been dug out of the deluge. "I have seen,” he says, “ fossil coralloids earth, appears to be sufficient, without any adthat have been composed of various sorts of mi. junct to express these substances; indeed this term neral and metallic matter, that yet have been is warranted to be thus employed by its general formed into shape of the marine mycetitæ, astroj. acceptation. ræ, and other like corals. Now all these have Besides those bodies, which, being actually orbeen formed out of the dissolved mineral and ganic remains, deserve to be considered as fossils

, metallic matter in the water of the deluge. The (fossilia, vulgo dicta of Linnéus); other bodies to antediluvian corals were like all other solid stony quire to be noticed, as sometimes serving to illusbodies then in solution in that water, and might trate the nature of organised fossile. These 38,

impressions, (impressa, Linnéus; typolithi, Wal- in a recent state; whilst others differ, in bork her); casts, (redintegrata, Linnéus); and incrusta- these respects, from any species of wood which is tions, (incrustata, Linnéus.)

now known. Fossils naturally divide into vegetable and The impressions of the stalks and leaves of animal, according to which of those kingdoms plants are very frequently found in many parts of they originally belonged: those of the vegetable the world, in lofty mountains, as well as ai a conkingdom shall be the first subjects of our in- siderable depth below the surface; and not only quiry.

the impressions, but the substance itself of differThe parts of vegetables confined in subterranean ent vegetables are also thus found; but in no sisituations sufler, according to circumstances, ei tuation more frequent than in the neighbourhood ther a complete resolution of composition, the of coal mines. lighter paris becoming volatilized, whilst the In general these vegetable remains are found more fised remain and form the substance which deposited in laminæ, in the schistose strata which is ter:ned mould (humus); or, as is supposed by accompany the coal; but the most perfect remains Mr. Parkinson, it passes through another process,

are commonly found in roundish nodular masses which he considers as fermentative, and becomes of ferruginous clay, which abound in the strata bituminous. Wood, thus changed, is called lignum accompanying the coal. These are commonly fossile bituminosum, surturbrand, and Bovey coal. termed catsheads by the workers of the coal By the extension of this process, the same author mines, and contain pieces of fern, &c. very few, supposes, that the substances termed bitumens, indeed, of which are found to agree with any (naphtha, petroleum, and asphaltum), are formed. known recent plants. The vegetable remains in To the same process he also attributes the forma. these fossils appear to confirm the opinion above tion of amber, of which however no proof ap- mentioned, of the bituminization of fossil vegepears. That jet, cannel coal, and the common tables; since these leaves are completely changed coal employed in domestic uses, have had a vege- into a bituminous substance. table origin is rendered highly probable, from the The remains of fruits are, perhaps, no where frequency with which they manifest the impres- found so abundantly as in the Isle of Sheppey, sions of various vegetable bodies.

where they are dug up in great variety; very few, Thus, perhaps, the formation of the bitumin- however, being found which agree with any ous fossils may be satisfactorily explained; but by known recent fruits. Where any resemblance far the greater number of vegetable fossils are appears, it is with fruits which only grow in the of a lapideous nature, and necessarily owe their warm Asiatic regions. formation to very different processes, which the

Fossil roots of plants of trees are very rarely same author supposes are, in general, preceded found; a circumstance not very easily explained; by the process by which bitumen is formed. since they possess (especially the roots of trees) Many bodies which are evidently of vegetable that degree of solidity which appears to be faorigin may be now found existing in a lapidcous vourable to the process of petrifaction. From the state, either calcareous or silicious; and many want of this necessary property it undoubtedly is others are found possessing certain marks of the that we possess so few remains of tender flower presence of some metallic substance.

leaves, and none of pulpy fruits. To explain these formations various opinions From the same cause, the great proneness to dehave been formed. Some have supposed the in- composition, the number of animal fossils is conjection of the impregnating matter, in a state of siderably limited: those substances being only preAuidity, by ignition; whilst others have imagined served in a mineralized state, which originally posthe gradual abstraction of the original particles of sessed a considerable degree of solidity; such are the body, and the regular deposition of the im- the bones,, teeth, horns, shells, scales, &c. The pregnating particles in the spaces which have just animal, however, far exceeds the vegetable king been left by the original matter. Mr. Parkinson, dom in the number and variety of fossils which it who does not admit of this substitution, attributes yields, as well as in the distinctness of form, and the formation of this description of fossils to the excellency of preservation, in which they are impregnativn of vegetable substances, which have found. undergone different degrees of bitumization with Adopring in a great measure the arrangement water, holding the earths or the metals in solu- of Waller, we shall commence our examination of tion. Thus with lime is formed the calcareous the animal fossils with those which have derived wood or wood-marble of Oxfordshire and Dorset. their origin from corals. These fossils are, of shire, of Piedmont and of Bohemia; with silex is course, merely the remains of the dwellings which formed the calcedonified, agatified, and jasperified have been formed by the various coral insects, wood (holzstein); and with the addition of alue and which are so frequently found in the cabinets mine, &c. the fossil woods which now partake of of the curious. the nature of pitch-stone, and wax.opal (hol- Immediately on commencing this examination, zopal). In other situations metallic impregna- we are struck with a similar want of agreement tions occur; as in such woods as are impregnat- between the recent and fossil corals, with that ed with the pyrites of iron, so frequently found which has been noticed between recent and fossil in our islands; and the beautiful woods of si- vegetables. Of the genus tubipora it does not beria, containing the hydrat and carbonat of appear, at least by the observations made in Mr. copper.

Parkinson's second volume of The Organic ReVarious parts of trees and plants (phytolithi) mains of a former World, that a single species are found in a mineralized state. Not only fossil which is known recent has been found as a fossil. wood (lithoxylon), as has been just noticed, but Several fossil species are, however, described, of the leaves (lithophylla or lithobiblia), and fruits which nothing similar is known in a recent state. (carpolithi) of different trees or plants are thus The most striking of these is the tubipora catenufound. Of the woods, several, from their form laria, or chain coral, the surface of which, in conand texture, have been supposed to have been sequence of the tubes being in contact at their originally oak, willow, and such trees as now exist sides, has frequently a very curious reticulated or catenulated appearance. Tubipora fascicularis, The millepores do not appear to be nearly so

T. slellata, T. repens, and T. strues, which have frequently found in a mineral as in a recent state. been described by different authors, and which Several fossils have been placed among the mille are unlike to any known recent tubipore, give pores which undoubtedly should rank with the reason for supposing that the number of species madrepores: such are the millepora simples tur. of fossil tubipores exceeds that of the recent spe- biuata, and the millepora simplex discoides, of cies.

Waller and Gesner; a careful examination sber. The fossil madrepores are not less rich in varie-ing, that these differ from the porpital and tarty, nor less comparatively numerous, than the binated madrepores, only in their being formed of fossils of the preceding genus. The forms of seve- numerous tubes, possessing an internal stellated ral species of the fossil

madrepores do frequently structure. approach to those of the different recent species; Of the genus isis one species only appears to but in a considerable number of the fossil madre- be known as a fossil. This species was earliest pores no reserxblance is discoverable, except in described by Scilla, who at first conjectured it to be their stelliform openings, with any recent coral. the leg-bone of some animal. Specimens are freSo great indeed is this departure in some instances quently found in the Calabrian mountains, and from the general characters of our present known have lately been also found in some parts of Wiltmadrepores, that it has been deemed difficult to shire, of the genera cellepora, antipathes, and determine, whether some fossil specimens should Gorgoma, fossil specimens appear to be rather be considered as madrepores or as alcyonies. It is uncommon. impossible, without the aid of numerous figures, The corallo-fangitæ of Waller are evidentiy the to give satisfactory notions of the forms of the se- fossil remains of the alcyony. These base ben long veral fossil madrepores which have been hitherto described by Volkmano, Scheuchzer, and others, discovered; the most interesting only will there. as fossil fruits, and have obtained, from their ree fore be here particularized.

semblance to figs, &c. the appellations of ficoides, The madrepores consisting of a single star ap- caricoides, &c. ; whilst others of a different forta pear to be much more numerous in a mineral than have been named lycoperditæ, fungitæ pilcati, &c. in a recent state. These are either of a discoidal A fossil alcyony has even been described by Volk. form, having a concave superior and a convex in- mano and Scheuchzer as a fossil nutmeg. ferior surface; of a pyramidal top-like form, ter- The encrini and pentacrini have been always, minating in a pedicle; or of a lengthened pyrami- and very properly, considered as the most curious dal form, bearing in some, from a slight curvature, of the fossil zoophytes. The epcrinus (Plate LXXX. the appearance of the horn of an animal; whilst Nat. Hist.) possesses the distinguishing character others are cylindrical for a cousiderable part of of having its spine, or, as it has been geberally their length.

called, its tail, composed of cylindrical or orbicaThe first of these, madrepora porpiia, the shirt- lar vertebre, pierced through their ceutre, and button madrepore, has been long known to the marked with diverging striæ on their articulating collectors of fossils in this kingdom. Dr. Wood- surfaces. On the superior termination of these ward describes several of them, as myceritæ dis- is placed the base of the body of the animal, formcoides. The second species (madrepora turbinata) ed of five trapezoidal bodies, termed by Rosinus is also frequently found in different parts of Great articuli trapezoides, which inclose five small Britain, as well as in Sweden, Norway, and in se- bodies, which form the center of the base; the veral parts of France, Switzerland, and Italy. whole of these forming that which Rosious denoThese latter fossils have been termed by Dr. minated the pentagonal base. From each of these Woodward mycetitæ conoides seu calyciformes. proceed six other bodies, on the two last of each When they have acquired somewhat of a hornlike series of which are placed the arms of the animal, shape, they have been distinguished by the term which divide into fingers; from the internal surceratites; and when they have possessed more of face of these proceed almost innamerable articothe cylindrical form, they have been termed colu, lated tentacula. This fossil has long possessed melli'lapidei et hippuritæ; and from a supposed the name of the encrinus, or stone lily: its reresemblance, they have been also considered as the semblance to that flower having led to the suspipetrified roots of briony. Some of the single cion that it was a petrifaction of a dower, apstarred corals are found united at their pedicle, proximating in its form to the lily: its animal and approacbing towards each other at their sum- origin is however now completely ascertained. mits, though disjoined nearly through their whole Indeed, if a doubt had remained, it would have length. These, from their resemblance to petri- been removed by the circumstance of the animal fied reeds, have been named junci lapidei. membrane, or cartilage, having been actually dis

It would be useless to attempt, in this sketch, to covered in the fossil. (Organic Remains of a for. specify the considerable variety of fossil madre, mer World, vol. i. p. 166.) Several other species pores formed of aggregated circular stars, and of this animal are also described in the work just which have been designated as astroites, &c. referred to; but hitherto no recent animal has Those which are composed of angulated stars are, been found which can be referred to this genus. perhaps, not so numerous: many of these, how- The fossil pentacrinus differs from the encrious, ever, are very different in their appearance from in its vertebræ being of a pentagonal form, and in those which are known in a recent state. The its arms, fingers, and tentacula being capable of one most known in these islands is the lithostro- being much more widely spread and extended tion, sive basaltes striatus et stellatus, of Llwyd. than are those of the enerinus. It appears from The exact union of the sides of the polygons giv- Mr. Parkinson's account, that there are several ing a tolerably correct idea of minute basaltes. species of this fossil, the existence of some recent The compound madrepores, the stelliform part of species of which have been also ascertained. which are extended in undulating labyrinthean The encrinital vertebræ have been hitherta forms, appear to be much less numerous as fossils termed trochitæ when separate, and entrochi when than any of the other corals : their existence in a connected in a series. The single vertebræ of the silicious state very rarely occurs.

pentacrinus have been distinguished as asteriz, and when united together they have been termed their internal structure, which in many fossil shells eolumuar asteriz.

are objects highly worthy of examination. of the asteriæ, or stellæ marinæ, some very few The mya pictorum is described by Solander as specimens have been found fossil; but they oc- existing among our Hampsbire fossils; a fossil cur very rarely, and have, in general, been found mya of three or four inches in length is found also in a condition loo imperfect to allow of any posi- in the cocks near Bognor. Remains of the Sulen tive opinion being formed, respecting the species siliqua; and of the Solen ensis, have been found to which they belong.

at Harwich, and a small fossil shell, named by The fossii echini are very numerous, upwards Solander Solen ficus, has been found between of forty species, known only as fossils, being enu. Lymington and Christchurch. merated by the illustrious Linnéus; to delineate, Fossil sheils of the genus tellina, as well as of therefore, even those most deserving of notice cardiuin, mactra, donar, venus, spondylus, chama, could not be here well accomplished, a circum- arca, and particularly ostrea, have been found of stance, huwerer, which is not so much to be re- many species. But do bivalve exists as a fossil greited, since, through materially different, they in such prodigious numbers, and in such various approach very nearly in their general form to the species, as those of the genus anomia. These recent species. Those which possess a hemisphe- shells are characterized by the beak of the largest rical, or a nearly orbicular form, with large ma- or under valve, which is perforated, being greatly miila-like protuberances, and the anus disposed produced, rising or curving over the beak of the vertically, have been distinguished as the turban smaller or upper valve. Anomia lacunosa is one echini (echini cidares); those which resemble a of the most abundant of these species. They are shield or buckler in their figure are termed the shield found in considerable quantities in different parts echin (elypei, Kleinii); and one of the largest of of England, particularly in Lincolnshire, Warwick. these has been named the polar stone by Dr. Plot. shire, and Gloucestershire. Anomia terebratula, (Plot's Oxfordshire, p. 91.) When of a depressed is another fossil of this genus, which exists in difcircular torm, with the anus in the edge of the in- ferent counties in this island, in great abundance. ferior part, they are the tibulæ of Klein; of a Oi the genus mytilus several species are known conical torin, the eaglestone of the Germans (co- as fossils, some of which approach very near to nuli, Kleinii); with a circular base, the quuit those which are known recent: one in particular echinus (discoidei, Kleinii). When the base is an appears to ditler very little indeed from mytilus acute oral, the mouth and anus being at the op- modiolus. Fossil shells of the genus pinna, in posite ends, they are termed the helinet echinis, any tolerable state of preservation, are not free cassides et galerp, Kleinii); and when heart-shaped, quently found: the shells are in general so fragile with a sulcaied superior surface, they are called as to render it very difficult to obtain them tolersuake's hearts (spatangi, Kleinii).

ably perfect; or so that but little information can The attempt to particularize the various species be yielded respecting the species to which they of fossil shells which have been found would re- belong. quire a large volume: all that can be here done is to No fossil shell appears yet to have been found notice some of those which totally ditfer from any which can with certainty be placed under the which exint in a recent state, and to offer some genus argonauta. But of the genus bautilus, few remarks on those which approximate, or are specimens are very frequent. These bave been perhaps similar to some of the species which are found in several parts of this island: some very known in a recent state.

fine specimens have been found at Lime in DorsetWith respect to the state in which fossil shells shire, in different parts of Wiltshire, and at Whitby are found, it is necessary to remark, that in some in Yorkshire. The finest specimens are perhaps situations, shells wbich have been buried for ages, found in the neighbourhood of Bath, and in the by the natural changes which the surface of the isle of Sheppey in Kent, at which latter place earth has undergone, are found very little changed, they are found exceedingly large, and still retainexcept from the loss of colour, and having been ing a resplendent pearly shell. rendered extremely fragile; that in other situa- The cornu ammonis, which, if we except the tions the substance of the shell has been so in extremely minute shells of this kind which have jured, as to be reduced to very small fragments, been seen by Plancus, and others, in the sea sand and even to a fine powder, leaving in some on the Venetian shores, may be said to be only instances a stony, correctly moulded, cast of the known to us in a fossil state. cavity of the shell; that very frequently the sub- Like the nautilus, the cornu ammonis is divided stance of the shell is entirely altered, having be- into compartments, by regularly disposed particome a calcarevus stope, or a silicious or pyritous tions, and these partitions are perforated, as are mass, and that the shells of a former world are those of the nautilus, although it is by no means frequently found in masses of marble, which is easy to point this out, except in very few specicalled luinachelli, or shelly marble.

Ol' the multivalves, the cbiton does not appear There are none of the fossil shells, except per. to have been found in a mineralized state : and haps the anomiæ, which can vie in the variety of although several species of lepas have been found their species with the cornu ammonis. The shell in a mineral state, they are by no means frequent of some is perfectly sinooth over its whole surfossils. Lipas anserifera is said to have been face; in others smooth at the sides, but ridged or found fossil, as well as lepas diadema; these must, beset with spines at the back; and others, though however, be exceedingly rare tossils.

smooth at the side, are crenulated at the back. Fossil shells of the phloas are by no means com. The species most commonly met with have the mon; the phloas erispata has been, however, found shell variously ridged; some with sinall close among the Harwich fossils.

strie, and others with large and round ridges. In Fossil bivalves are very common fossils; they some the ridges are single, in others bifurcated, are,

be expecterd, very seldom found in and in others triturcated. In some, and these are pairs, except when united by a lapideous mass, least common, the shell is tuberculated : these which prevents the examination of their binge, or tuberculæ differing considerably in different

metis.

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