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ENGLISH. 2. Find correctly to 4 places of decimals the quotients result.
Hooded. ing from the following divisions :
Soa-hardened. 1. 413! + 3243.
3. 2.3748 + 1.4736.
To man a ship. 2. *079085 • *83497.
4. 180 - 314159.
Anh-may-lay (2nd syll, long) To entangle.
Furnishing a house. 3. How many boxes will it require to pack 71.5 pounds of
Emménagements Anh-may-nazh-manhs Ship's conveniences. butter, if you put 5-5 pounds in a box?
To furnish a house. 4. How many suits of clothes will 29-6 yards of cloth make, Emménagogue Anh-may-na-gog
Emmenagogue. allowing 3-7 yards to a suit ?
To take away. 5. If a man can walk 30-25 miles per day, how long will it Emmenotter Anh-mono-tay
To handcuff. take him to walk 150-75 miles ?
Sweetened with honey.
To sweaten with honey. 6. How many loads will 134642:156 pounds of hay make,
To wrap up. allowing 1622.2 pounds for a load ?
To consecrate a bishop. 7. If a team can plough 2:3 acres in a day, how long will it
To mortise. take to plough 63.75 acres ?
Banked with earth. 8. How many bales of cotton are there in 56343-75 pounds, Emmuseler Anh-muzlay
To muzzle. allowing 375 pounds to a bale ?
It is believed the above list comprises nearly every word in 9. Determine the quotient in the following examples in divi. sion of decimals by removing the point in such dividend to the the French language which departs from the general rule of
nasals in em. left, and adding ciphers when necessary :
74. The following words are exceptions to the first general 1. 4672-3 • 100.
5. 42643621 - 100000,
rule concerning nasals (page 214), namely:2. 8 – 10000.
6. 6723000-45 = 10000000,
PRONUNCIATION, 3. 672315-67 10.
Enivrant 4. 10312 306 + 100. 8. 2.0076346 • 1000000.
Intoxication, 10. Multiply the following numbers together by removing the Enivrer (and all de- Anh-nee-vray
To intoxicate, decimal points :
rived from it)
To render proud. 1. 854321 X 100.
8. •5 X 1000, 2. A2930 213401 * 10. 9. 75 X 100000.
SECTION XXV.-IDIOMATIC USES OF VERBS, ETC. 3. 1067.2350133 x 100.
10. 65 ten thousandths x 1000. 4, 608-34017 X 1000.
11, 48 hundred thousandths 1. The verb aller is used, in French, in the same manner as 5. 30•4672 14067 X 10000.
the verb to go, in English, to indicate a proximate future. 6. 446-32L 4022 x 100000. 12, 248 thousandths x 100000. Allez-vous écrire ce matin ?
Are you going to write this morning? 7. 21-3456782106 x 100000.
Je vais écrire mes lettres,
I am going to write my letters. 11. Multiply ·863541 by .10983, retaining 5 decimal places. 2. The verb venir is used idiomatically, in French, to indicate 12. Multiply 1.123674 by 1:123674, retaining 6 decimal places. a past just elapsed. It requires, in this signification, the prepo13. Multiply .26736 by .28758, retaining 4 decimal places. sition de before another verb. 14. Multiply •1347866 by 288793, retaining 7 decimal places, Je viens d'écrire mes lettres, I have just written my letters. 15. Multiply •681472 by .01286, retaining 5 decimal places.
Nous venons de recevoir des lottres, We have just received letters. 16. Multiply .053407 by .047126, retaining 6 decimal places. 17. Multiply-3857461 by : 0046401, retaining 6 decimal places. to, to come to, in connection with nouns or pronouns representing
3. Aller trouver, venir trouver, are used in the sense of to go
Go to the tinman.
J'ai envie d'aller le trouver, I have a desire to go to him.
Venez une trouver à dix heures, Come to me osten o'clock. SECTION 1.-FRENCH PRONUNCIATION (continued).
4. Aller chercher means to go for, to go and Jetch. 72. THERE are a few exceptions to the preceding illustrated
Allez chercher le médecin,
Go and fetch the physician. pronunciation, which will be given, namely:
Je vais chercher du sucre et du I am going for coffee and sugar. Ennui. According to Rulo 2 (page 214), the first en of this
café, Ford would not be nasal, because the n is doubled. In this word, however, en is a nasal.
5. Envoyer chercher means to send for, to send and fetch.
Envoyez chercher le marchand, Send for the merchant.
J'envoie chercher des légumes, I send for vegetables. In the following words the en is a nasal, viz. :
6. The first and second persons of the plural of the imperaEnnuyant Anh-nuee-eeanh
tive are, with few exceptions, the same as the corresponding Ennuyeusement Anh-nuee-eeuhz-manh Tediously.
persons of the present of the indicative. The pronouns nous, Enouyeu Anh-nuee-eeuh
vous, are not used with the imperative. Emuyeux
7. PLURAL OF THE IMPERATIVE OF ALLER, ENVOYER, AND
Allons, let us go.
8. Tous, m., toutes, f., followed by the article les and a plural 73. There are some exceptions, also, to the pronunciation illustrated under the nasal em (page 214)
, in the following noun are used in French in the same sense as the word every in words, in which the m is doubled, but the nasality is not
Votre frère vient tous les jours, Your brother comes every day. destroyed, namely:-
Vous allez à l'école tous les matins, You go to school every morning. FRENCH. PRONUNCIATION,
9. Tout, m., toute, f., followed by le or la and the noun in the Emmagasinage Anh-magaz-ee-Dazh
Warehousing. Emmagasiner Anh-magaz-ee-nay
singular, are used for the English expression the whole, coming
before a noun.
To grow lean. Emmaillottement Anh-nah-eegl-ot-manh Swaddling.
Il reste ici toute la journée, He remains here the whole day. Emmaillotter Anh-man-eagl-yo-tay
10. A day of the week or of the month, pointed out as the Emmanchement Anh-manhsh-manh
Putting on a handla.
time of an appointment or of an occurrence, is not preceded by Emmancher Anh-manh-shay
To put a handle to.
a preposition ia rench.
Come on Monday or Tuesday. Emmanchure Anh-manh-shure
Venez le quinze ou le seize Avril, Come on the fifteenth or sixteenth of Enmannequiner Auh-man-kee-nay To put into a basket.
Envoyens, let us send.
| Venen,.concus come.
11. When the occurrence is a periodical or customary one, LESSONS IN GEOGRAPHY.–VIII. the article le is prefixed to the day of the week or the time of the day.
DISCOVERIES OF THE NINETEENTH CENTURY, Il vient nous trouver le Lundi, He comes to us on Mondays.
Sir John Ross, who sailed in the Victory in 1829, on an erIl va trouver votre père l'après- He goes to your father in the after. pedition to the north, again explored Baffin Bay, Lancaster midi,
Sound, and Prince Regent Inlet; discovered land which he RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
called Boothia Felix, from the name of his patron; and explored
the coasts of this new country, until he was so hemmed in by Je vais parler à M. votre père. I am going to speak to your father,
the ice, that he could neither advance nor return. The expediNous venons de recevoir de l'argent. We have just received money. Que venez-vous de faire ? What have you just done?
tion accordingly remained in this condition during the space of Je viens de déchirer mon habit. I have just torn my coat.
four years, the longest period on record of the detention of Votre frère va-t-il trouver son ami? Does your brother go to his friend? navigators in the northern regions. While thus detained the Il va le trouver tous les jours. He goes to him every day.
members employed their time in making excursions which Il vient me trouver tous les Lundis. He comes to me every Monday. enlarged our geographical and meteorological knowledge, and Allez-vous chercher de l'argent ? Do you go and fetch money?
added to philosophy the fine discovery of the north magnetic Je n'en vais pas chercher.
I do not. (Sect. XXIII. 12.) pole. Besides the isthmus and peninsula of Boothia Felix, the Allez-vous chez cette dame Lundi? Do you go to that lady's house on expedition discovered King William Land, and the western sea
called after the same sovereign. As to the north-west passage,
he found that this did not exist in Prince Regent Inlet, nor to J'y vais ordinairement le Mercredi. I generally go there on Wednesdays. Il va à l'église le Dimanche. He goes to church on Sundays,
the south of latitude 70° N.; but Sir John Ross failed in dis
covering a free passage in the frozen seas of America, by which VOCABULARY.
he could find his way to Behring Strait; in fact, the peninsula Année, f., year.
Demain, to-morrow. Mardi, m, Tuosday. which separates Prince Regent Inlet from this northern sea, at Apprend-re, 4, ir., to Dimanche, m., Sunday. Mercredi, m., Wednes. the place where the expedition made its principal researches, is learn. Ecossais, -e, Scotch. day.
not only very narrow, but is chiefly covered with lakes which Après-midi, f., after- Ecri-re, 4, ir., to write. | Musique, f., music. reduce the isthmus between the two seas to a breadth of three
Enseign-er, 1, to teach. Parceque, because. miles. Commenc-er, 1, to com- Excepté, except. Prochain, -e, next.
Other expeditions, no less dangerous, and equally difficult, if Irlandais, -e, Irish. Rest-er, i, to remain, not more so, had been undertaken by land, with a view of Compagne, f., com- Jeudi, m., Thursday. to live. panion.
Journée, f., day. Samedi, m., Saturday. exploring the northern regions of America, and the coast of the Connaissances, f., ac- Lundi, m., Monday. Teinturier, m., dyer.
Polar Sea, in order to assist in the discovery of the passage so quaintances. Malade, sick. Vendredi, m., Friday. ardently sought for during so many ages. Samuel Hearn,
employed by the Hudson Bay Company, in 1771 commenced EXERCISE 45.
his expedition at Prince of Wales Fort, and discovered the 1. Qu'allez-vous faire ? 2. Je vais apprendre mes leçons. Coppermine River, which ho traced to its embouchure in the 3. N'allez-vous pas écrire à vos connaissances ? 4. Je ne vais Polar Sea. Franklin, in 1820-21, made an expedition by land écrire à personne. 5. Qui vient de vous parler ? 6. L'Irlandais along the same coast, between the Coppermine River and Cape vient de nous parler. 7. Quand l'Écossaise va-t-elle vous Turnagain. This adventurous expedition, accomplished amidst enseigner la musique ? 8. Elle va me l'enseigner l'année pro- a thousand dangers, among which famine was not the least chaine. 9. Va-t-elle commencer Mardi ou Mercredi ? 10. Elle formidable, was highly useful in a geographical point of view. no va commencer ni Mardi ni Mercredi; elle a l'intention de Two years afterwards the same officer undertook another ex. commencer Jeudi, si elle a le temps. 11. Votre compagne va-t- pedition to the north, and explored the country between the elle à l'église tous les Dimanches ? 12. Elle y va tous les Mackenzie River and Cape Back; at the same time Dr. Dimanches et tous les Mercredis. 13. Qui allez-vous trouver ? Richardson, one of the party, explored that part between the 14. Je ne vais tver personne ? 15. N'avez-vous pas l'inten. Mackenzie River and the Coppermine River. The part of the tion de venir ne trouver demain ? 16. J'ai l'intention d'aller coast left unexplored between the limits of Captain Beechey trouver votre teinturier. 17. Envoyez-vous chercher le médecin? and Captain Franklin's discoveries, extending to 150 miles, was 18. Quand je suis malade, je l'envoie chercher. 19. Reste-t-il nearly completed in this respect by Captain Back, and after him avec vous toute la journée ? 20. Il ne reste chez moi que quel. by Messrs. Dease and Simpson, so that the northern shores of ques minutes. 21. Allez-vous à l'école le matin ? 22. J'y vais North America are now geographically known almost throughle matin et l'après-midi. 23. Y allez-vous tous les jours ? 24. out their whole extent. J'y vais tous les jours, excepté le Lundi et le Dimanche. 25. Le Our geographical knowledge of the interior of the continent Samedi je reste chez nous, et le Dimanche je vais à l'église. of North America was greatly increased by some other imEXERCISE 46.
portant expeditions. Lewis and Clarke travelled to the sources
of the Missouri among the 'Rocky Mountains, and reached the 1. What is the Irishman going to do? 2. He is going to Pacific Ocean by descending along the course of the Columbia teach music. 3. Has he just commenced his work ? 4. He River. Pike, in exploring the sources of the Mississippi, dishas just commenced it. 5. Who has just written to you ? 6. covered those of the Arkansas and the Red River. Major Long, The dyer has just written to me. 7. Does your little boy go James Peak, Messrs. Cass and Schoolcraft, travelled over this to church every day? 8. No, Sir, he goes to church on Sundays, vast region, so remarkably studded with lakes and rivers, and and he goes to school every day. 9. Do you go for the phy- belonging partly to Britain and partly to the United States sician? 10. I send for him because my sister is sick. 11. Do Mackenzie, in 1789, went from Montreal, and travelling to the you go to my physician or to yours? 12. I go to mine, yours north-west, descended along the course of the river which bears is not at home, 13. Where is he? 14. He is at your father's his name, and found that its source was in the Slave Lake, and its or at your brother's. 15. Do you intend to send for the termination in the Arctic Ocean ; he then crossed the chain of physician? 16. I intend to send for him. 17. Am I right to the Rocky Mountains, and reached the Pacific. In South America, send for the Scotchman ? 18. You are wrong to send for him. Baron von Humboldt began his explorations, and accompanied 19. Do you go to your father in the afternoon ? 20. I go to by M. Aimé Bonpland, the celebrated botanist, visited Columbia, him in the morning 21. Does your brother go to your uncle's now divided into the republics of Venezuela and Ecuador, and every Monday ? 22. He goes there every Sunday. 23. Are the Granadian Confederation, studying during his travels all the you going to learn music ? 24. My niece is going to learn it, if phenomena of nature, tracing the geography of the country, she has time. 25. Am I going to read or to write ? 26. You measuring the heights of the Andes, examining the craters of are going to read tomorrow. 27. Does he go to your house volcanoes, delineating on maps the courses of rivers, and, in every day? 28. Ho comes to us every Wednesday. 29. At short, exploring the greater part of this magnificent country, what hour? 30. At a quarter before nine. 31. Does he come On the river Amazon, he made observations equally curious and carly or late ? 32. He comes at a quarter after nine. 33. What important. He proceeded from Peru to Mexico, and made do you go for ? 34. We go for vegetables, meat, and sugar. similar observations in the latter country; and he has described 35. We want sugar every morning.
his scientific discoveries in these regions in a style both effective and interesting ; so that in no portion of the globe have greater stone, some of which weigh eighty tons. The great gates are advances been made in the knowledge of physics and geography, each composed of one single mass; and there are colossal and of all the sciences connected with them. Botanical geo- images rudely sculptured, showing that at a very early period graphy may, in fact, be said to have originated with Baron von there must have been some communication between the old Humboldt. If to this we add that the author of the “ Tableaux World and the New. The traveller above mentioned then visited de la Nature" studied the countries in which he travelled both in succession the cities of Cochabamba and of Santa Cruz de in an economical and political point of view, his merit as a la Sierra ; courageously penetrated into the province of the scientific traveller stands unrivalled.
Chiquitos, which he surveyed in every direction to the river The travels of La Condamine in Po and on the river Amazon ; Paraguay and the Brazilian province of Matto-Grosso; noted the of Smith and Maw, on the same river; of Messrs. Spix, Martins, manners of the Guarayos, a tribe still entirely savage; traversed and Auguste St. Hilaire, in Brazil ; of Don Felix Azara, in the province of the Moxos, to the north-east of Upper Peru; Paraguay; of Captains King and Fitzroy, in Patagonia and passed some time in the forests inhabited by the Yuracares Tierra del Fuego; of M. Stephenson, in Chili and Peru ; of M. Indians ; discovered the points of discharge of the Rio Beni and Gay, in Chili; and of M. Schomberg, in Guiana, have all con- Rio Mamoré, tributaries to the Amazon ; returned to Santa tributed to the perfection of our knowledge of the geography, Cruz; visited Potosi, the city of inexhaustible mines; and finally the productions, the geology, and the population of South Ame- sailed for France from the coast of Peru. This remarkable rica. Among these later travellers must be mentioned M. A. expedition lasted for the space of eight years, and produced d'Orbigny, a learned French geologist, who, in 1826, after a valuable results for the geographer, the natural historian, and sojourn of seven months at Buenos Ayres, ascended the Parana l the goologist.
as far as 1,000 miles from its month, travelled over the province From the extremity of South America let us pass on to the of Corrientes, and other parts of the Argentine Confederation, regions which surround the Antarctic pole. There we see navivisited the hordes of savages which people the Grand-Chaco, and gators of all nations braving the storms and the icebergs of returned to a civilised territory, passing through the provinces those seas which are covered with everlasting mists, in order to of Entre Rios and Santa-Fe. He then travelled into Patagonia, enrich geography with important observations and discoveries. ascended the Rio Negro, and sojourned eight months in that After the immortal name of Cook, came those of William Smith country amongst the stalwart savages, whose Herculean forms (1818), of Lieutenant Barnsfield, of the Russian officers Bellingand size had been described with so much exaggeration by hansen and Lazareff (1819), of Botwell (1820), of Weddell and Pigaletta, Drake, Sarmiento, Lemaire, Byron, Bougainville, and Palmer (1822), of Biscoe (1830), and of Balleny (1839). It is to many other navigators. This intrepid naturalist then proceeded these navigators, some commissioned by the government of the to Chili, having doubled Cape Horn and reached Bolivia, some nations to which they belonged, and others who were simply times called Upper Peru, of which he explored the western whalers or seal-catchers, that we owe the successive discoveries region, rendered so remarkable by the labours of the ancient of New South Shetland, the South Orkneys, Palmer Land, Quichnas. He ascended the summits of the Andes, and on his Trinity Land, the islands of Peter and Alexander, Enderby Land, reaching the opposite sides of these amazing heights, beheld a Adelié Land, Graham Land, and the islands of Biscoe and magnificent panorama of snowy peaks, and of immense chains Balleny. Three voyages in the southern circumpolar seas—those of mountains. He at last reached the vast table-land on which of Dumont d'Urville, of Captain James Clarke Ross, and of the is situated the great Lake of Titicaca, 150 miles long, rendered American Commodore Wilkes-deserve particular notice. The 50 famous by the Temple of the Sun, built by the Incas, on an French expedition, under the command of Captain Dumont island in its centre. At the village of Tiahuanacu, near the d'Urville, after a careful exploration of the Strait of Magellan, banks of this lake, are also to be seen the remains of the proceeded in 1838 towards the icy regions, and was stopped by stapendous palace erected by the ancient Peruvians. The an iceberg in latitude 640 S. The two vessels endeavoured to interior courts, 360 feet square, are built of enormous blocks of overcome the obstacles which opposed their progress, but they
were blockaded by the ice during five successive days, and only be acquainted with, as :-Kennen Sie sicje Leute? Do you know secured their safety by a sudden change of the wind to the these people ? Ich fenne sie, I know them, I am acquainted with south, and the immediate efforts of the crews, who cleared their them. way through the immense blocks of ice with which they were sur- 4. The indefinite pronoun man has no exact correspondent in rounded. Sailing in a different direotion, they discovered Louis English. It is variously translated, according to its position ; Philippe Land; and returning northward, Captain D'Urville thus, Man sollte immer ehrlich handels, one should always act honourvisited, agreeably to his instructions, the island of Juan Fer- ably. Man läuft, they are running. Man schreit, they are crying. nandez, the Marquesas Islands, Otabeite or Tahiti-which has Grtragen muß man, was der Himmel sendet ; what (the) Heaven sends, gained the name of the “Gem of the Pacific" from the exquisite must we endure ($ 59. 1, 2). Man is often nominative to an beauty of its scenery-Samoa, Vavaoo, Hapaee, and the Feejee active verb, which latter is best rendered by a passive one, as :Islands. He then touched at Banks Island, the Vanikoro, Man weiß, wo er ist. it is known where he is. Man hat den Dieb Solomon, and Caroline Islands, and others, and arrived at the gefangen, the thief has been caught. hospitable port of Guam. He then sailed through the great The above use obtains especially in the phraso , man sagt“ Asiatic Archipelago, and explored the banks of New Guinea, (French on dit), which, though more literally “one says,” is Australia, and the isles of Sunda; he made the tour of often better rendered by " it is said, rumoured, reported," etc. Borneo, and stayed a short time at Hobart Town, in Tasmania.
VOCABULARY. In January, 1840, the vessels of the same expedition, L'Astrolabe and La Zélée, sailed again towards the icy regions of the south, Elend, wretched. Latei'nisch, Latin. Sollen, shall. and swept over the immense space from 120° to 170° E., which Heidelberg, n. Heidel- Machen, to make, to Sprache, f. language. had not hitherto been fully explored by navigators. Having dis- berg.
Um ($ 114. 4). covered some land and coasts which they supposed to belong to Selen, to go for. Schneiten, to cut. Wahl, f. choice. the yet undiscovered Antarctic continent, they returned to New Käie, m. cheese. Schule, f. school. Wiese, f. meadow. Zealand, and explored its coasts, and those of the islands of the Louisiade Archipelago and New Guinea, including the dangerous
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. reefs of Torres Strait.
Er ist fleißig, mcht nur um das lob He is diligent, not only to obThe object of the expedition under Captain, afterwards Sir seines Lejrers zu erwer'ben, son. tain the praise of his teacher, James Ross, was to investigate the problem of the Artarctic tern um seine Kenntnisse zu er: but in order to extend his continent of which D'Urville was considered to have seen the weitern
knowledge. shores. He sailed for this purpose, with the Erebus and Terror Wir cssen, um zu leben ; aber wir We eat in order to live, but we under his command, and early in 1840 he discovered land in leben nicht, um zu essen.
do not live in order to eat. latitude 70° 47' S., and longitude 174° 56' E., consisting of a Ein fluger Mann weiß zu schrei- A judicious man knows (how) collection of peaked mountains, varying from 9,000 to 12,000
to be silent. foet in height, covered with snow, and surrounded with immense in un'beflectes Herz ist ein stiller An unspotted heart is a still masses of ice which jutted into ocean like huge promon. heller Sce, tem man auf den clear sea, which one sees to tories. An island discovered in the vicinity of this land was Grund richt
the bottom. called Victoria. In latitude 76° 8' S., and longitude 170° 32' E., Gin Freund ist eine Münze ; man A friend is a coin, it is proved they discovered another island; and next day they beheld a prüft sie, che man sie nimint. before it is received. mountain 12,400 feet high belching forth, at an immense eleva
EXERCISE 39. tion, flames and smoke; to this volcano they gave the name of Mount Erebus. Having reached latitude 78° 4' S., the farthest
1. Ich muß auf die Wiese gehen, Heu zu holen. 2. Was soll Ihr Brusouth point yet reached in the Antarctic Ocean, the expedition ter in der Schule thun? 3. Er soll in die Schule gehen, um die lateiniiche proceeded on its way in a retrograde direction, coasting, as it ( 5, 8) Sprache zu lernen. 4. Der Mensch muß ehrlich oder elend sein. were, the land first discovered, it being impossible to get on 5. Was soll ich thun ? 6. Sie können thun, was Sie wollen, und sollten shore on account of the ice in which it was enveloped. It was thun, was Sie fönnen 7. Warum sind Sie nicht gestern zu uns (Sect. thus ascertained that this land extended in latitude from 70° S. XXIII.) gekommen? 8. Ich wollte, aber ich konnte nicht; ich mußte zu to 79° S. ; and it was named Victoria Land. A second
Hause bleiben und lesen 9. Wird der Schneiter mir einen Tod machen
voyage of Captain Ross was fruitless, and a third ended in the discovery wollen? 10. Er wird Ihnen einen machen wollen, aber er wirt es nicht of a small volcanic island in latitude 64° 12' S., and in longitude
t[but finanet. 11. Warum wird er es nicht thun fönnen? 12. Er wird 54° 29' W. The expedition of Wilkes, the American navigator morgen auf tas Land gehen müssen, feinen franten Bruter zu besuchen. 13. already mentioned, was practically useless; as it was proved that Was will ter Knabe mit seinem Messer ? 14. Er will Bred und Kafe his claim to the discovery of the Antarctic continent could not schneiten. 15. Haben Sie Zeit, in den Stall zu gehen? 16. Ich habe
17. Was baben be supported even by the testimony of his own officers. Recent Zeit, aber ich will nicht gehen, ich will zu Hause bleiben. attempts to penetrate into the land around the south pole have Sie zu Sanje
zu thun? 18. Ich habe Briefe zu lesen und zu schreiben. proved unsuccessful.
19. Müssen Sie sic beute schreiben? 20. Id muß sie heute schreiben, weil ich morgen nach Harelberg gehen will, 21. Man muß in der Wahl jenner
Freunte vorsichtig sein. 22. Diejer Knabe hat heute gar nichts gelernt. LESSONS IN GERMAN.-XIV.
23. Haben Sie auch nichts gelernt ? 24. Ich habe etwas gelernt, aber SECTION XXV.-THE INFINITIVE, ETC.
VOCABULARY. WHEN not governed by an auxiliary verb of mood, the infinitive Qué, out of, from. takes the preposition zu (§ 146) before it, as :- Ich habe Zeit zu Barcr, m. Bavarian. | Fenster, n. window.
| Dorf, n. village. Neu'igkeit, f. news. lesen, I have time to read. Er geht in die Schule, um zu lernen, he Berg, m. mountain. | Flinte, f. gun.
Sdachtel, f. bor. goes to school, in order to learn. Er geht auf ten Markt, um Fleisch Bühme, m. Bohemian. Haustnecht, m. house
Schyloji, castle, zu kaufen, he goes to market, in order to buy meat. Um, in order, Brunnen, m. well.
palace. is, as in English, often omitted, as :-Er geht auf ten Markt, Fleisch Dienstmädchen, n. ser. Hesic, m. Hessian.
lingarn, n, Hungary. zu fauien, he goes to market to buy meat.
Warschau, n. War1. Können often signifies to know, to have learned a thing, and
Krafau, n. Cracow. may be followed by a noun in the accusative, as :-Rönnen Sie
EXERCISE 40. Deutsch? Do you know (understand) German ? Followed by a verb, können signifies either to be able (see Sect. XXIV. 1), or to geht rieser Knabe ? 4. Er geht mit seinem Vater nach der Stadt
1. Zu wem gehen Sie? 2. Id gehe zu meinem Bruder. 3. Mit wem
5. know how, as :- Sann er schreiben? Can he write or, does he Bon wem baben Sie diese Neuigkeiten gehört? 6. Ich habe fte von meinen know how to write, has he learned to write ?
alten Freunde gehört. 7. Mit wem geben Sie nach dem Derfe? 8. Ich 2. Wissen, to know, is frequently placed before an infinitive gehe nicht nach dem Dorfe, ich gehe mii meinem Vater nach der großen with zu, and corresponds to our phrase “ to know how," as :Er weiß zu schreiben, he knows (how) to write. Er weiß zu leben, he Wir gehen nicht zu Ihren Freunden, wir fommen morgen wieter nach Hause
9. Wann gehen Sie aus ter Statt zu unsern Freunten? 10. kuzows (how) to live. Er weiß sich zu helfen, he knows (how) to 11. Id gehe heute weder zu meinem Freunde, noch nach dem Derfe, noch get on.
aus dem Hause. 12. Der Graf hat ein großes Shloß mit Fleinen Fenstern. 3. Sennen also signifies to know, but only in the sense of to 13. Der Fluß fommt aus den Bergen. 14. hat Ihr Vater etwas von
Verhei'ßung, f. pro
feinem Bruder gehört? 15. Ja, dieser Mann ist aus Ungarn, und hat Gebet', n. prayer. Mit'gehen, to go with. Steigen, to rise. meinem Vater eine Schachtel von meinem Oheim gebracht. 16. Geht er Gebirg'e, n. chain of Müte, tired, weary. Sübent, m. South. nach Wien? 17. Nein, er geht nach Warschau, und von Warschau nach mountains.
Norten, m. North. Untergehen, to
go &rafau. 18. Der Baier, der Bohme und der Hesse fommen aus Deutsch- Grūnspan, m. verdi. Pest, f. plague, pesti- down, set. Lan. 19. Der Jäger mit seiner Flinte kommt aus dem Walte. 20. Der gris.
lin'terirtisch, subterraKrecht geht nach der Stadt. 21. Ich habe von meinen Brüdern gehört, Klause, f. cell. Rach'süchtig, revengesie gingen zu ihrem Freunde. 22. Das Dienstmädchen fommt vom Brun Kunde, m. customer. ful. nen, und der Hausfnecht geht zum Fleischer.
Licht, n. light. Reichlich, rich.
Reiter, m. rider,
Weg-fliegen, to fly
Magnet', load- Retten, to save, res- away. 1. If we desire to be happy, we must not deviate from the
Wegʻraffen, to carry path of virtue. 2. I know that he is not your friend, but I Magnet 'nadel, f. mag. Sanft, mild, soft.
off, destroy. krow likewise (auch] that he is a man of probity (Nedlichkeit). 3. netic needle. Sonne, f. sun. Let them know that this news is only a rumour (Gerücht). 4. Mehr, more.
Welt, f. world.
Sprichwort, n. adage. l Zeisig, m. greenfinch. They must not say everything they know. 5. You must be very careful in the choice of your friends. 6. We ought to know to
RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES. whom we apply. 7. Will you tell the tailor, when he has Das Gewiskien ist die Stimme der The conscience is the voice of finished your coat, to call on me? 8. Have you time to go Seele; die Lei'tenschaften sind die the soul, the passions are the with me to the city ? 9. If he had not been able to perform
Stimmen des Körpers; auf welche voices of the body; to which (nicht hätte zu Stande bringen können] the work he would not
von beiben Stimmen soll man of these (both) voices shall · have undertaken (unternommen haben) it. 10. Have you time
one listen? to read this letter? 11. He goes to school, in order to learn und sie gingen Jo'nathan nach, als And they went after Jonathan the Latin language.
er hinaus“zog zu David
as he drew (forth) toward SECTION XXVI.-SEPARABLE PARTICLES.
David. The particles ab, an, auf, aus, bei, mit, nieder, um, voraus, etc.
Das geht mich nicht an (Sect. That does not concern me. (3 89, 1, $ 90, $ 92), are often compounded with verbs, and, as Die Sonne geht um fünf Uhr auf.
The sun rises (goes up) at five they may stand apart from the verb, they are called separable
The sun has already risen. 1. In principal sentences (§ 160) the particle is separated from Die Sonne ist schon aufgegangen. the verb and placed at the end. In subordinate sentences, how
EXERCISE 42. ever, the particle and the verb remain always in union, as :Er wirft ten Wagen um, he overturns the wagon. Der Wagen, ten
1. Die Reiter trieben bei dieser Nachricht ihre Pferde zu größerer Gile it um wirft, the wagon which he overturns. Ich hob den Stein 2. Der schöne Zeisig ist dem ($ 129. 3) Knaben weggeflogen. 3. Die auf. I lifted the stone up. Der Stein, welchen ich aufhob, the stone Aussicht einer reichlichen Velohnung spornte' sie an, tas Kind tes reichen which I lifted up. Der Mann geht aus, the man goes out. Der Grelmannes zu retten. 4. Der Bauer hat seine Feldfrüchte eingesammelt, Rann, welcher ausgeht, the man who goes out. Er schrieb den Brief ausgebroschen und aufgespeichert. 5. Der Rachsüchtige wentet gern (Sect. ab, he copied the letter. Der Brief, den er abschrieb, the letter XLIII. 1) das Sprichwort an: „aufgeschoben ist nicht aufgehoben.“ 6. Abwhich he copied. Er brach die Blumen xb, he broke off the flowers. geschieden von den Menschen lebt der Eremit in seiner Klause. 7. Der Krieg Sie ist traurig, weil er die Blumen abbracy, she is sad, because he hat viele Menschen weggerafft, aber doch noch mehr die Pest. 8. Die Sonne broke off the flowers.
ist untergegangen. 9. Der König hat nach Beendigung des Krieges viele In the above words, "overturn and uplift," it will be seen
Soldaten entlassen. 10. Der Magnet zieht das Eisen und den Blit an.
12. Die that the usage of the two languages is similar. In nearly all 11. Die Magnetnadel zeigt tem Steuermann Nord und Süd an. other English compounds, however, this resemblance to the Drohungen sowohl als tie Verbeißungen in der Bibel deuten die Liebe German does not exist; thus, for ,, ich kann den Wagen umwerfen,“ Sottes an. 13. Der fupferne Kessel hat Grünspan angezogen. 14. Der we may say, I can overturn the wagon, or, I can turn the wagon Müller hat sein Mehl abgesept. 15. Der Vater hat den Hund in sein over. The sentence, Er fann ausgeben, however, we can only trans- Zimmer eingeschlossen. 16. Der Kaufmann preist das Tuch seinen Kunden late by placing the particle at the end of the sentence; as, he an.
17. Das Gebet richtet ein getrüdtes Herz auf. 18. Der Mond steigt can go out.
hinter dem Gebirge auf und erfüllt die Erde mit seinem sanften Lichte. 19. 2. In the infinitive mood, the particle is never separated from Ich steige in den Wagen, Sie steigen aus dem Wagen, und er steigt auf tas the verb, except by zu, which, when used, stands between the Pferd. 20. Die mūden Reiter steigen von ihren Pferden ab. 21. Wollen two, as :-Er will ausgehen, he will go out. Kann sie abschreiben? Sie mich mitnehmen, wenn Sie nach Deutschland reisen? 22. Ich glaube can she copy?
Er ist betelt den Wagen um zu werfen, he is ready to nicht, daß Sie mitgehen wollen. overturn the wagon.
EXERCISE 43. 3. In the past participle, the augment, ge, comes between the particle and the radical; the particle of course being always pre
1. After the termination of the war, the soldiers will be paid fized, as :-Er þat ten Brief ab geschrieben, he has copied the letter. off. 2. I shall go with your brother to the hermit, who lives 6r hat den Wagen um geworfen, he has overturned the wagon. Ich separated from the world. 3. The farmer has collected the corn Þabe ben Brief, welten er abgeschrieben hat, I have the letter which in the field. 4. The citizens are shut up in the town from the
enemy. 5. The war and the plague have destroyed a great VOCABULARY.
many people. 6. The weary rider dismounts his horse. 7. bgeschieten,
The merchant has disposed of his stock. 8. The sun rises in sepa-, Anʻziehen, to attract. Bliß, m. lightning. rated. Aufheben, to revoke, Doch, yet.
the east. 9. The sun rises at twenty minutes past five o'clock,
and sets at half-past six. 10. You must incite your scholars to Adseken, to dispose
Drohung, f. threaten- be more studious. 11. Will you defer your visit for to-morrow? of, sell.
Auf'richten, to elevate, ing. dh'fteizen, to descend,
12. The magnetic needle points to the north. 13. The scholar support.
Trüđen, to afflict, op has copied his lessons. disinount. Auf'ichieben, to defer,
press. Ar tentan, to indicate,
Gile, f. haste, speed. declare.
Auf'speichern, to gar- Gin'sammeln, to colHa prijen, to praise, ner, store up.
OUR HOLIDA Y. extol. Nufósteigen, to ascend, Gin'schließeni, to shut
GYMNASTICS.-V. An'ipstien, to incite. mount.
up, confine. Latreiben, to urge,
THE PARALLEL BARS.
Aussicht, f. prospect. charge, pay off. The parallel bars afford advantages similar to those of the It wenzen, to apply, Been'tigung, f. termi- Gremit', m. hermit. horizontal bar, which was the subject of our last paper; and cmploy.
Grfül'len, to fill. also give scope for a still higher and more attractive series of An zeigen, to point out, Belohnung, f. reward. Feltfracht, f. fruit of exercises which are highly beneficial in strengthening the musabow. Bibel, f. Bible.
cles of the arms, chest, and back. The form and construction
he has copied