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school. It is particularly striking in the Protestant faith when the Bill Archdeacon Wilberforce's Charge. passed for the Emancipation of the
That the events of 1828, 1829, and Roman Catholics, instead of dwelling 1833, should have formed an epoch upon that as the chief danger that in the history of the Established threatened the Church. We shall Church, calling upon her as much as see, as we proceed, that he takes up possible to be on the defensive, and the very principle of the Church of to strengthen herself and win the Rome, as that which was to serve as confidence of the nation, by acting a counterpoise to the influence of the out her own fundamental principles, Dissenters. was a very natural consequence; for “ The writers of the tracts," he says, it must be admitted, however reluc- “perceived that the Church had, by tantly, that though the majority of the measures of Government, lost her really religious Dissenters feel the worldly claim to teach, and that she value of an Establishment as part of must put forth a higher principle." I the Constitution of the country, and venture to affirm that the worldly as a powerful instrument for the gene- claim of the Church remains where it ral diffusion of Christianity, the pro- was, but that claim can never be her motion of order, and the observance chief support in the eyes of a thinkof the Sabbath, and would gladly en ing and Christian people. A higher courage it as far as it adheres to principle, indeed, must be put forth, Scripture—there are but too many if she would engage the confidence of merely political Dissenters, who would the nation, * but that principle must violently dissever Church and State, be based upon revealed truth; and and take the Church property and the Tractarian writers, by introducing privileges into their own hands, not and insisting upon the false principle considering that the endowments are of the spiritual nature of the priestly not made by Government, but are office (by which they really mean the the actual property of the Episcopal sacrificial nature of that office), inChurch. The Roman Catholics, on stead of consolidating the Church and the other hand, stand prepared to in- exalting her character as a teacher of vade her territory, and to corrupt her truth, have weakened the hands of people by false doctrine. These facts, her ministers, separated her flocks, probably, occasioned Lord Eldon and and diminished the number of her Sir Robert Inglis to think that the adherents. In many places churches principle of an Established Church have been nearly emptied by this exwas surrendered when liberty and clusive and extravagant teaching. privileges were accorded to Dissenters “The writers of the tracts,” says and Roman Catholics, and when the the archdeacon, “perceived that the incomes of the Irish clergy were Church must put forth her own claim reduced; but the evils that might to teach, now that her voice had ceased have been anticipated from Dissenters to be identical with the testimony of have not been realized. The special the nation.” To this I reply, that the privileges of the Church of England voice of the Church will always be are just what they were. The en- identical with the testimony of the croachments of the Church of Rome nation, if that voice articulates scriphave alone endangered her stability, tural truth and adheres to her Profor the reduction of the incomes of testant character. Historically, the the Irish clergy seems, so far from Church has a hold upon the affections having discouraged them, that real of the people, and all her ministers religion never flourished more in Ire- will have a claim to teach in subserland than it has done since that event. vience to Holy Scripture as long as
The archdeacon distinctly states, the Church stands. But to bring in that "it was not to sustain the worldly claims of the Church that the tract
• It was the fact that the evangelical teachers
did not seek to introduce any new principle, writers chiefly turned their attention ;” but simply to revive the genuine pa
the Gospel, that gave them such weight with
their reflecting hearers. of the blow that was inflicted upon
A new principle is to dreaded.
the Roman Catholic principle that the tion of the exclusive right of the hierChurch (meaning the hierarchy of archy of the English Church to rule the Episcopal Church of England) the consciences of the English nation. can alone know the things that God It is a principle exactly in unison teaches, and possess the right to teach, with the teaching of Rome, in the will never serve the cause of the Church Catechism she circulates in England ; in England, if England is faithful to there we read these questions and her high vocation. If the spread of answers : “Q. How are we to know real Christianity over the land be her what the things are which God object, she never will deprive any teaches ? A. By the testimony of the Christians of the power of diffusing it. Catholic Church.” The Church of But let us return to the archdeacon's England is thus identified by the tract statements; he says,
writers with the Church of Rome.
This right to teach independently of “Such a claim to teach must necessarily depend upon the commission of
the written Word, is inculcated and her ministers; they looked round them
asserted by that Church, and we see for some principle which might justify to what it leads. The Church of the assertion, that, to define the faith of England will gain nothing more by the Church, belongs to the pastors of the this approximation, than the humiChurch collectively considered. This liating distinction of being claimed statement obviously implies that the by the Church of Rome as an erring Church is an institution in itself, de. member that ought to renounce every pendent on its own principles, amenable authority but her own. Thus is the to its own laws. If the Church were Protestantism of our National Church only a name bestowed upon any associa- assailed at its very centre, by those tion of men who choose to unite together, who appeared to be her friends. no persons could assert any exclusive If, at the same time that the Tracright to define what others should believe.
tarians tried to trace the discipline of To assert such a power is to lay claim to
the Church of England to the days of the possession of a Divine commission; such a commission must either be au
the Apostles, and to bring into evithenticated by extraordinary powers, as
dence her historical antiquity, they in the case of the Apostles, or else by had gone back to the Apostles for some visible institution, which links the doctrine, they might indeed have done present to the primitive age. If the much towards securing for her the Church of England, therefore, had been pre-eminence which we, as her atone of those bodies which took its rise attached members, believe she might the Reformation, like the various sects of attain, if she would again try all her Protestants, the notion of such a claim expressions by her Sixth Article, and would be preposterous. We must go make the Scriptures her only touchback, then, to a higher origin ; we must stone; but they have done the very identify the Church of England with that
reverse. By leading her back to trasociety which took up its dwelling here, before the English were a nation while
dition they have brought upon her Yorkshire was only the hunting-ground
the scorn of those very Churches with of Deira, and while our countrymen were
which they wished to amalgamate her. sold in the slave markets of the South.
The fallacy of the attempt has been This was the fundamental principle of proved beyond dispute by the extrathe ‘Tracts for the Times,' the system in ordinary effort of the Rey. William which it was proposed to vest the autho- Palmer, of Magdalen College, Oxford, rity of the Church of England, when she commonly known by the title of Deaceased to be the sole teacher authorised con Palmer, who, professing himself by the State. She was reputed to be the to be a member of the Catholic Church Church Catholic sojourning in this land: of England, endeavoured to gain adsubiect, therefore, to those laws, claiming mittance to the communion of the those rights, which belonged to her as
Church of Rome and to that of the
Chi that ancient institution which was formed by our Lord and His Apostles.”
Greek Church, upon the principle of
intercommunion between all Catholic Here, then, by the archdeacon's own Churches. The Archbishop of Paris, showing, we have the distinct assump- to whom he applied in that city, re
quired, as a preliminary step, that he Church of most remote antiquity, and should acknowledge the Pope as the have run the risk of placing all the only true centre of all mission; and other Reformed Churches upon a more the priests of the Greek Church re- advantageous position than the Church quired the renunciation of the Articles they so desired to exalt, and for which of the Church of England. To nei- they endeavoured to claim an excluther of these did Mr. Palmer con- sive right to teach, For what compasent: both Churches, therefore, de- rison can there be in the minds of clined to admit him to communion, really religious, sensible, and welland considered him as a member of informed people, between the value the Protestant heretical Church of of christian doctrine and the mere England, notwithstanding his pre- credentials of the priesthood ? The tensions to be Catholic. Would that Tractarians pride themselves upon the this sincere and indefatigable man, latter, and adulterate the former, Mr. Palmer—who, like St. Paul, is whereas the Reformed Churches glory, warring against the people of God, as they well may, in the purity of under the persuasion that he is thereby their doctrine, which will bear the serving the cause of the true Catholic test of Scripture, though their disciChurch-would that he could open pline may be less complete than ours; his eyes and see the snare that word and we might glory with them, as we “ Catholic "has been to his own soul, trust we shall, by holding fast to our shutting up his sympathies with true Protestant character and repudiating Christians and opening them to out- every principle and every expression ward ceremonials. If, henceforward, that will not bear the full blaze of he would study the history of the Scripture light. Christian Church with the Bible in I give full credit to the Tractarians his hand, his love of antiquity might for all their exertions, and do not wish be more fully gratified than it ever to detract a word from what the archcan be whilst he limits his researches deacon says, that—" During the last to the time when the Church was first twenty years more churches have called Catholic; for, as there can be been built or restored, more schools no doubt that the National Church, established, and a greater number of with her episcopal orders, may be services and sacraments, than during identified with the Christian society the whole period between 1830 and which existed in this country before the Reformation." But more than the English were a nation, and has this is required to build up the Church therefore a claim to high antiquity, so of England. Opinions may produce it is certain that if she would impress a certain kind of life, but spiritual her claim to teach upon the attention life and ecclesiastical life are two of the people, she must go back to the very different things. The latter may time when the disciples were first lead men to build churches, multiply called Christians, and gain their con- services and sacraments, educate chilfidence by proving that she is a teacher dren, and appoint synods, and lead to of revealed truth, and a faithful op- much external order, which is good ponent to all adulterations of doc- in its place; but unless the spirit of trine.
truth circulates through all these The Tractarians, by not going to the means, souls will not be drawn to Apostles for their theory, but forming Christ, and formality or superstition it upon the writings of the Fathers, will take the place of spiritual worhave broken the link between the ship, Church of England and the Christịan
T. H. A.
CHORAL SERVICE AND CONGREGATIONAL SINGING.
To our mind, the striking difference pore prayer, that we think is conbetween the legitimate worship of the gregational singing to a choral serChurch of England and that of dis- vice. senting communities, has been, that Of course, in making this compariin the former the people are enabled son, we make all the difference beto take a large share both in prayer tween those who offer prayer and and praise. The constant interchange those who lead the musical portion of of prayer and response in our ser- these choral services. The latter may vices, directs the congregation to con- be, and too often are, mere singers sider themselves as fellow-worshippers and musicians, without a particle of with their minister, who is merely spiritual religion in their hearts, while their leader to the throne of grace; we rejoice to acknowledge that those while amongst Dissenters the minister who habitually pray with, and for, alone prays for and on behalf of the their people, are men of God and people. Many may be able habitually ministers of the true sanctuary. The to follow in spirit extempore prayers, only point in which we desire to but, from repeated observation, we make the comparison is, that the have been thoroughly convinced, that mass of the people really join in with a very great number of the mem- one as little as the other. In the one bers of Dissenting Churches, much of case they hear words spoken, but the true spirit of prayer is destroyed in which they take no open part, by the effort of mind required to fix and too often but little interest; in the attention on the words and ideas the other, they hear singing, in of the minister. We say not, that which, from its very nature, they canforms have no evil tendency what- not join, and the very words of which ever, but to spiritual worshippers, we they cannot make out. It is to them, feel certain that the united breath- - we speak of the generality of worings of hallowed prayer and praise do shippers,-either a musical treat, or, keep alive the flame of spiritual wor- if they care not about music, only a ship far better than when we have to tedious performance, in which they follow words of which we have no have neither physical, mental, or spi. previous knowledge.
ritual enjoyment. And as this is true of prayer, so A few attendances at the services have we also a very great regard for of our cathedrals, and those churches congregational praise ; that exercise which have lately mimicked those of heart and voice in which all can places in their celebration of divine and ought to join, in pouring forth worship, cannot fail to impress a spitheir songs of holy joy. This united ritually minded Christian with the offering of an assembled people's truth of our observations. Who ever thanksgivings is most heart-cheering heard more, or barely more, than the to the devout Christian; and can we voices of the officiating clergy and doubt that, if coming from hearts at the choir, while they must have been tuned by God's Spirit, does indeed pained to behold the numerous con"make melody” to the Lord ? It is gregation but listeners, perhaps enreally a gladdening sight to see a chanted listeners, to the beauty of the whole congregation joining in the music and the singing ? How few Psalm, or Hymn, or spiritual song; are the hearts, comparatively speakrude and untutored may be many a ing, that are lifted up in praise to voice, but the whole service goes up God, while the Anthem, which disto the Throne, and makes music of places the Psalm or Hymn, with its sweetest sound in the ears of Him simple melody, is being curiously who listens to the harps and songs of performed by men and boys, who, it angels and of "saints made perfect.” is no want of charity to assert, do What our own liturgical form of wor not, as a body, enter into the spiriship is, when compared with extem. tual meaning of the words they
chant. Hired singers, whose business worthy offering to God. If we eschew it is, not only thus to conduct this that curious and scientific performpart of the worship of God, but whose ance of singing, which effectually very talents often lead them to other deters by far the greater part from places where God is not honoured, joining, as heartily do we eschew that are not the fitting instruments where meagre and needlessly in harmonious by to represent the thanksgivings of singing which so often characterizes His people. Only let our cathedral our churches and chapels? We ought ministers try the experiment on some to give to God the best service we Sunday when their noble edifices are can offer, and not that which costs us crowded, and let the Old Hundreth the least trouble ; but to look around Psalm, or some well-known Hymn, on a congregation during the singing for once, take the place of the An- of a Hymn, we should imagine many them, and they would be for once to to be struck dumb whose voices can astonished and gratified, by hearing, be musical and active enough elseperhaps, a thousand voices join in where. making the aisles and roofs of their In congregations where this deficicathedrals ring with an unwonted ency exists, those who deplore it song of praise from “the great con- ought at once to remedy the evil. gregation.”
Wisely set about, much might easily As for the Tractarian Churches, be done by a few words from the pulwhich have banished Hymns for An- pit, and most valuable assistance thems, and silenced the voices of a might be rendered by those members congregation,in exchange for the notes who are qualified meeting together of hirelings, we must not hope to con with those not similarly instructed, to vince them of the miserable poverty practise sacred music in a devotional of the substitute. Their object is spirit, and purely with a view to Rome, and whatever shuts out the make the service of God more worthy people, and brings the priest and his of His glory. surpliced choir between them and It is with this view that these hints God, serves their purpose.
have been given, and wherever they But if we object altogether to cho may fall, we trust that but one moral service, we no less object to the tive will be ascribed, and that one, very poor substitute for it we hear in that while the higher and more spirifar too many of our churches. In tual enjoyment of the delightfu) exsome the organ and charity children ercise of praise is first to be secured, go through the whole almost alone which we feel can never be done by the and unaided by the voices of the con- choral service, so our congregational gregation; in others, only a small service may be better fitted to convey minority of the congregation join; our united ascriptions of praise than whilst in most there is but little pains the character of our present practices. exerted to make praise a general and affords.
NINE MONTHS OF THE WORK OF DEATH IN OUR PARISH.
LEAVES FROM A PASTOR'S NOTE-BOOK. April 11.-With the showers of April other children refused to be comforted, our tears fell fast over the grave of one and our grief was made deeper by witdear to us all the child of our affections, nessing the intensity of theirs. Yet there the lamb of our flock. Less than two was comfort mingled with the bitterness years he had been with us, and we had of this cup. The precious promises of scarcely thought that he was mortal, when the Gospel were never so sweet as in the sudden sickness seized him, and in less hour of sorrows; and we sometimes had than twelve hours from perfect health he glimpses of our infant in heaven in the was dead! It was a sad blow to us. The midst of its praises, that more than recon