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RÉSUMÉ OF EXAMPLES.
now jumping upon his good horse. 18. The man sits at the table,
and the book lies upon the table. 19. I have no hat on my head. 20. Wer das Gute liebt, ter liebt auch He that loves goodness, also Where is the soldier going ? 21. The soldiers are going to the field;
Gott und verachtet Alles, was loves God, and contemns all they are already on the field. 22. The frog leaps into the river and ihn nicht zur Vollfomómenheit that does not advance him swims in the river, and the goose swims in the pond. 23. I have read befür'dert.
these words somewhere. 24. I can find my cap nowhere, although it Was quálen Sie mich mit Ihrer Why do you torment me with must be somewhere in this room, Gelehrsamkeit? (Gellert.) your erudition ?
EXERCISE 45 (Vol. I., page 245). Der Mensch glaubt leicht, was er Man easily believes what he hofft, und sieht leicht, was er sehen hopes, and sees easily what
1. Wo ist die Bildergallerie tiefer Stadt ? 2. Wo war diefer Herr will.
he wishes to see.
geboren? 3. Er war in Böhmen geboren. 4. Wo wohnt Ihr Freunt, Das große Haus, welches (not wa8) The large house, that you see manterer hin? 7. Woher kommen diese Ginwanterer? 8. Sie kommen
ter Schauspieler ? 5. Er wohnt in der Stadt. 6. Wo gehen diese Aué Sie dort sehen, ist (Sect. LVIII. yonder, belongs to us. 1) unser.
von Frankreich. 9. Wo viel gegeben ist, wird viel verlangt. 10. Bier Ci'nige meiner Freunde find aus Some of my friends are natives dringt nicht die Rache und der geweßte Dolch eines Verräther: ;-—unter den Dreften gebürftig.
Schatten dieses Baumes fommt kein König. 11. Er warf das Buch ut Dieser Mann ist ein gebor'ner Ame. This man is a native Ameri- mir nieder. 12. Wohin gehst du? 13. Ich gehe zu meinem Sowager. rifa'ner.
14. Werden diese Auswanderer nach Amerifa geben? 15. Nein, fic werten can.
hier bleiben. 16. Da (or e8) ist Wasser im Teide. 17. Woher kommt sie? EXERCISE 132.
18. Sie kommt von Deutschland. 1. Wer sich das Göttliche will und bas Höchste im Leben erfechten,
EXERCISE 46 (Vol. I., page 245). scheue nicht Arbeit und Kampf (Körner). 2. Wer geirinnen will, muß
1. The soldiers are here, and the commander-in-chief is coming wagen 3. Dieses Buch ist mir licb; wer es stiehlt, ter ist ein Dieb. 4.
hither also. Wer nichts lieben will, als sein Gbenbild, hat außer sich nichts zu lieben
2. The enemy is already there, and our brave brothers
must proceed thither. 3. When are you going to Spain? 4. I do not 5. Wer zweifelt, verzweifelt. 6. Der gegen sein Vaterland streitet, ist mean to go there at all, but my father will travel thither next week. ein Verräther. 7. Wer sich in Gefahr begiebt, fommt tarin um. 8. Wer 5. Have you been there already ? 6. No, but one of my acquaintances dem Unterprüdten nicht beisteht, verdient auch feinen Beistand. 9. Wer was there, and will never go there again. 7. We are going upon the fich gegen das Schidsal stemmen will, ist ein Narr. 10. Sind Sie ein mountain; will you go with us ? 8. Does the Russian mean to send his geborner Engländer oder Amerikaner ? 11. Id, bin keins von beiden servant to the town? 9. He has already sent him thither. 10. Will (Sect. XXXII. 2), ich bin ein geborner Deutscher. 12. Wer ist Ihre the troops come hither ? 11. They will not come hither. 12. Where Freundin? 13. Sie ist eine Amerifanerin, gebürtig aus New-York. 14.
do these strangers come from? 13. They are immigrants, and come Woher ist Ihr Freund gebürtig? 15. Er ist aus England gebürtig. 16.
from Bohemia. 14. Is this ship from Bremen or Havre ? 15. It is In welchem Cante wurden Sie geboren? 17. Ich bin in den Vereinigten these French immigrants going to Milwaukee ? 17. A part of them
neither from Bremen nor from Havre, it is from Venice. 16. Are Staaten von Nordamerika geboren. 18. Ich mache mich über diesen Mann are going there, the others remain in New York. 18. The immigrants lustig. 19. Sie sollten sich nicht über ihn lustig machen 20. Gr macht to America are emigrants from Europe, and from other parts of the sich über Jedermann (ustig. 21. G: giebt auch Narren, welche sich über Old World. 19. When do you mean to go into the field ? 2). I have Andere lustig machen 22. Dieser Mensch hält sich über jede Kleinigkeit been already in the field, and cannot go there again; but I must now auf (Sect. XXX.). 23. Es ist unflug, sich über eine unbedeutende Sache soon go into the garden, because my teacher is there and wishes to see cufzuhalten oder lustig zu machen. 24. Wer zu viel anfängt, vollendet me. 21. Why will this Italian not speak English? 22. He would wenig. 25. Ich freue mich über meinen artigen Neffen 26. Der römische like to speak it, but he does not know it yet; he speaks only Italian Raiser Augustus war in Verzweiflung über die Niederlage, welche Varue and Spanish. 23. How many languages can you speak ? 24. I speak pon ten Deutschen erlitten hatte. 27. Er hat mit mir über diesen Gegen only two, but I mean to learn others besides. stand gesprechen. 28. Wer aus liebe zu Gott der Menschheit Pflichten
EXERCISE 47 (Vol. I., page 245). entsagt — Rißt im Finstern, und halt immer den Spiegel vor sich.
1. Wann lebte er? 2. Er lebte im vierzehnten Jahrhundert. 3.
Mein Freund sagte mir, er würde nie wieder dahin gehen. 4. Gehen Sie EXERCISE 133. 1. He who assists the poor will receive divine assistance. 2. hat seine Truppen dahin geschickt, wo die größte Gefahr war.
nach Spanien ?
7. 3ft dice: He who would have entrance everywhere, must have golden Schiff von Spanien oder von Havre ? 8. Nein, es ist weter von Spanit, keys. 3. He who fights for his country deserves distinction. noch von Havre ; es fommt von Hamburg. 9. Diese Einwanderer geben 4. He who wishes to learn German, must give himself some nach Milmaufee, und find Auswanterer von Böhmen und Venerig. 10
, trouble. 5. He who dies for his king, dies with glory. 6. He können Sie über jenes Thor springen? 11. Id konnte es, als it juma who commits high treason, dies mostly upon the scaffold. 7.
12. Er bat mich, dahin zu geben, damit er mit mir darüber fresca They are born under a happy star. 8. In which country were fönne. those ladies born ? 9. They were born in Italy, in the year
EXERCISE 48 (Vol. I., page 246). 1795, but their mother was born in England. 10. Are these ladies natives of Germany ? 11. No, they are natives of France.
1. Hare you seen my friend ? 2. Yes, he has gone down the street. 12. Our music-master is a native of Ítaly, and was born in 6. Are you going over to Mainz to-day by the steamboat? 6. Te,
3. Will you go into the cabin? 4. No, I am going down below deck. Florence. 13. I will do what I have promised. 14. Show me
and this evening I shall come over by the railroad over the new bridge what you have found. 15. What enhances the glory of this of boats. 7. Our course is up and down.
8. The roe leapt down hero, is his modesty. 16. Let us grant him what we at first while the hare ran up the hill. 9. The soldiers sprang out of refused. 17. Thou hast never told us what they have trusted the barracks,
as the enemy rushed into the town. 10. As the watchyou with. 18. Why do you make yourself merry at the misery man stepped into the house, the terrified thief hastened down-stairs, of the oppressed ? 19. The fruits which we saw in the garden 11. I cannot get out of the crossways of this garden. 12. Do you not of our neighbour were not so good as those which grew in know how this bird got in? 13. Yes, but he does not know where he yours.
can get out again. 14. The young Swiss looked towards the kine mountains of his native country. 15. Are you not coming down to
day? 16. Yes, if my uncle comes up, I shall go down. 17. Have you KEY TO EXERCISES IN LESSONS IN GERMAN. seen this man already? 18. Yes, he entered the door as I went out
19. The friend went over the river and back ngain in one hour. Bu EXERCISE 44 (Vol. I., page 245).
The stream falls down the rock with great roaring. 1. Where is the brother-in-law ? is the confectioner going ? 4. He is going into the bakehouse.
EXERCISE 49 (Vol. I., page 246). Where is his friend, the actor ? 6. He is at the opera-house. 7. 1. Der Sohn eilte hinunter, feinen Vater zu empfangen. 2. Erine Where is his friend, the ropemaker, going ? 8. He is going into his Mede dauerte über zwei Stunden. 3. Das Reh frrang aus seinem Bet workshop. 9. Where is the shepherd ? 10. He is on the mountain, ftede hervor. 4. Werden Sie heute mit dem Damrfboste nat Frantriant 11. Where is the shepherd going? 13. Where is our old neighbour going? 14. He is now in the little hinübergeben? 5. Nein, ich werde mit der Gisenbahn hinübergeben, garden, but he is going into the large garden soon. 15. His wife is in mit dem Dampfboote zuridtommen. 6. Gehen Sie nicht über den Sorte this house, but his cousin is going into that picture-gallery. 16. 1 weg hinaus. 7. 3d sah Ihren Freund bercintommen, alt 3hr beige
8. Diese Leute, welche über jene Pride gehen, fint in fakt knight already sits upon his good horse, and
the serrant also is just ihres Lebens. 9. Betten Sie heute mit Ihrem Freunde binausgeber ?
2. He is at the table.
2. He will
10. Von diesem Gügel können wir nach unserm Vaterlande hinübersehen. officer's courage is called in question; and it is a matter of 11. Wie ist der Dieb in Ihr Haus gefornmen? 12. Eduard stürzte sich satisfaction that in this case of Admiral Byng the personal von dem Felsen hinab. 13. Ich werde diesen Morgen an Ihrem pause courage of the accused was admitted to be unsullied. But the vorbeikommen, und werde hineinfommen, ohne daß Sie mich bitten, folches zu way in which he had conducted himself in the Mediterranean, tsun.
when not his own honour only, but that of the kingdom also, EXERCISE 50 (Vol. I., page 259).
was entrusted to his keeping, was said to have been such as
greatly to tarnish the national glory. What that conduct was, 1. Will the aged soldier go to-day in the forest ?
and the result of it to the man most concerned, will be shown he cannot to-day, because he has much to do. 3. The man servant is gone into the market to fetch meat.
4. To remain healthy, one must in this sketch. live orderly and temperately. 5. The woodcutter has gone into the
In 1755 war, which had for a long time threatened, broke out forest to cut wood. 6. The butcher goes from one village to the other between England and France and Spain. Various indecisive to buy oxen. 7. He goes from one village to the other, but can find aotions had been fought between the ships of the several
8. What does he want with the oxen? 9. He means to kill countries, and a few collisions took place between detached them; we must indeed have meat. 10. The peasant has two horses, bodies of troops; but there were not any operations on a large which the brewer wishes to buy. 11. I go to the city to buy a hat or scale till in the early part of 1756 the French determined on a cap. 12. He has books to read, and an exercise to write. 13. Where reducing the island of Minorca, which was held by General does your brother's friend wish to go ? 14. He wishes to go nowhere, Blakeney for the British. All the previous winter they had he wishes to remain with his uncle. mountain ? 16. I shall go there, but not to-day. i7. Can you go to been secretly preparing for the enterprise, though they had morrow into the country ? 18. I can go there, but I will not.
19. skilfully concealed tho aim and objects of it. Indeed, until When does your father want his horses back again? 20. He must have February, 1756, the British Ministers were not aware that the them to-morrow morning, becanse he wishes to drive to-morrow even expedition was meant for any place in the Mediterranean, but ing to Frankfort. 21. Why will he not ride there? 22. Because he fancied that the British possessions in North America were has no good saddle-horse, and the weather is very cold.
the destination. Convinced, however, at this time, of the actual EXERCISE 51 (Vol. I., page 259).
designs of the French, the Government took steps, albeit tardily,
to frustrate them. 1. Es ist heute zu falt für ihn, um nach Frankfurt hinüberzugehen. 2. A squadron of ten ships of the line was fitted out, and the Dort läuft der Hase über den Berg. 3. Da fährt Ihr Bruder. 4. Der command was given, on the 1st of April, to Admiral Byng, with inZuderbäder ist in die Badstube gegangen, um Brod zu baden. 5. Der structions to proceed forthwith to Gibraltar, and to inquire there Meßger geht auf den Markt, um Schafe zu faufen. 6. Ihr Kutscher hat whether the French fleet from Toulon had passed the strait. mich schnell hierher gefahren. 7. Schen Sie jenen Mann auf dem Pferde, If they had, he was to detach Admiral West, his second in welche wir gestern jaben? 8. Die Soldaten reiten auf schönen Pferden. command, with a portion of the fleet, to North America, where 9. Man jagt, in diesen Kutschen fährt man bequem. 10. Wir sind in it was still supposed a blow would be struck. If they had not, Ihrem Wagen gefahren, um unsere Visiten abzustatten. 11. übertritt he was "to go on without a moment's loss of time to Minorca." nicht das Gefeß 12. Das neue Dampfboot fährt heute zum ersten Male Failing to meet the enemy's fleet there, he was to go to Toulon, den Fluß hinunter.
and blockade it in that port. He was also to use his utmost EXERCISE 52 (Vol. I., page 260).
diligence to protect Minorca and Gibraltar.
As soon as he found what work was marked out for him, 1. This hunter has a fine dog, mine is finer, and yours is the finest of Admiral Byng complained to the Admiralty of the inadequaoy all. 2. The earth is smaller than the sun, and the stars are more distant of the force assigned to him. He had not a single frigate for than the moon.
3. Virgil is a more agreeable writer than Ovid. 4. reconnoitring or signalling purposes ; the ships he had were The city of Canton is larger than Paris. 5. Alexander the Great had foul, the crews weak both in number and health ; and there less prudence than courage. 6. We find much more copper than
were not any marines on board of them, that valuable arm of silver, and more iron than tin. 7. This girl prattles more than she service having
been withdrawn in order to make room for a works. 8. The air in the towns is more impure than the country at. 9. France is not so fertile as Germany. 10. This youth hns not as regiment of soldiers he was to take to Minorca, and for another much understanding as his brother, but neither has he as much vanity. he was to pick up at Gibraltar. The only answer he received 11. The rose is one of the finest flowers in the world. 12. Those are from the Admiralty was an order to proceed, and on the 7th of commonly the least proud, whose minds are the most educated. 13. April he put to sea. The manners of those with whom we have intercourse are commonly Owing to the foulness of his ships, on the sides and bottoms influential upon us.
14. The benefits that we are worthy of are more of which weed had so collected as to impair most materially agreeable to us than those we are unworthy of. 15. He is the richest their sailing qualities, the admiral did not reach Gibraltar till man whose children are virtuous. 16. The Lord has no pleasure in those the 2nd of May, and there he found there were not enough people who have no love to their brothers. 17. The apple-tree has a thick trunk, the beech has a thicker trunk, and the oak has the
stores to replenish his squadron, and that the governor would thickest trunk. 18. The more he has, the more he wants. 19.
not part with the regiment which Byng had been instructed to Florence is finer than Parma.
take from him to Minorca. While lying in Gibraltar Bay, the news reached him that a fortnight before the French admiral,
with a strong fleet, had appeared off Fort Mahon, Minorca, and HISTORIC SKETCHES.-XXV.
had landed the Duc de Richelieu, with an army of 16,000 men,
to besiege the place. The governor of Minorca was away ADMIRAL BYNG ON THE 14TH OF MARCH, 1757.
(General Blakeney, eighty-two years of age, was deputy“Every person in the fleet who, through cowardice, negligence, governor), and there were many of the officers of the garrison on or disaffection, shall in time of action withdraw or keep back, leave of absence; the fortress of St. Philip, though very strong, was or not come into the fight or engagement, or shall not do his very ill supplied; and there was not any assistance from Nature, utmost to take or destroy every ship which it shall be his duty to in the shape of rugged cliffs or difficult beaches, to defend the
every such person so offending, and being con- place. General Blakeney did his best to prepare for the siege, victed thereof by the sentence of a court-martial, shall suffer with his 3,000 men against 16,000 of the enemy. Under these death.” This was the article of war upon which the life and circumstances Admiral Byng's instructions "to go on without honour of Admiral John Byng were given in charge to a naval a moment's loss of time to Minorca" should unquestionably court-martial on the 28th of December, 1756. The trial took have been acted on to the very letter, yet the admiral waited in place on board the St. George, in Portsmouth harbour, under Gibraltar Bay till the 8th of May, and did not sight Minorca till circumstances of unusual excitement. All England was smart. the 19th. ing under a sense of the disgrace which the conduct of the Though the British flag was still flying from the citadel of prisoner had appeared to bring upon it, and there was a uni- Port Mahon, the place was closely invested. The Duc de versal cry for investigation. The populace were deeply imbued Richelieu was pressing the siege with all his power, and M. de with the spirit which actuated all ranks, from the king down. la Galissonière, the French admiral, was cruising off the island wards, and as Admiral Byng was brought to Portsmouth from with a fleet about equal in strength to the British admiral's. Greenwich, under the escort of a strong guard, he was insulted General Blakeney had sunk some vessels at the mouth of the in every town and village he passed through.
harbour to prevent the French fleet getting in, and so succeeded It is, happily, an event of most rare occurrence when a British in relieving himself from the fire of the ship's guns; but by
this act he also closed the harbour. against succours, at least popular voice had long exclaimed, determined to let him be until the French fleet should be driven away. To drive it away the scapegoat for the popular fury. There was a cry for was the manifest business of the British admiral, and on the blood, the king, whose one virtue was courage, and who cormorning of the 20th of May, the day after his arrival, Byng gave dially hated the bare appearance of cowardice, being among the signal to bear down and engage the enemy. The number of the most violent in urging the demand. It was resolved to ships was equal on both sides, though the French had twenty- bring the admiral to trial before a court-martial; and there four guns more than the British; but in point of numbers of was, it is to be feared, a strong predetermination to show mon, the French exceeded their opponents by nearly 3,000. no mercy in the event of the prisoner being found guilty, Still there was no reason why the battle should not take place, The trial began on the 28th of December, 1756, and lasted and accordingly, in obedience to orders from the commander-in. many days, and then the members of the court came to a resoluchief, Admiral West began the action by falling on to the tion that Admiral Byng had not done his utmost to relieve the French ships immediately opposed to his division. Soon after citadel of St. Philip, and that he fell under part of the twelfth two o'clock in the afternoon, by which time West had driven article of the existing articles of war. * As that article preone of the French ships out of line, Byng's division was about scribed death as the only punishment for breach of any of to come into action, when a series of accidents conspired to the rules laid down therein, and left not any discretionary embarrass the commander, who did not prove himself superior power to the court to moderate the punishment according to to them. The Intrepid, of West's division, had so much of her the circumstances of the case, the court had no choice but to rigging shot away, that she became unmanageable, and drifted pass sentence of death. That sentence was accordingly given, foul of some of the other ships. Byng's line was thrown into and the prisoner was condemned to be shot to death at such confusion, and his own ship, the Ramillies, was obliged, in time, and on board of such ship as the Lords Commissioners consequence, to bring up.
the Admiralty should please to direct. It appeared, however, M. de la Galissonière took advantage of the circumstances to upon the evidence of those who had the fullest opportunity discontinue the fight, and Byng believing, as he asserted after- of judging—the evidence of officers and men, who had stood wards, that the French fleet would renew the fight next morning, close to the admiral during the action on the 20th of May—that ordered his ships to lie to, in order to repair the Intrepid, there was no imputation whatever upon his personal courage Captain, and Defiance, which had been so mauled as to incapa- or coolness, that he gave his orders easily, and that he made citate them for farther service until they had been repaired. no effort to screen himself from the enemy's fire. From Next morning at daybreak, the French fleet not appearing, he other circumstances it also appeared that what had happened called a council of war, and took their opinion as to whether he could not be attributed to personal cowardice or disaffection; should follow the French floot and bring it again to action, or and it was only on condition of a unanimous recommendawhether he should leave Minorca to its fate, and go to the pro. tion to mercy, that the minority in the court agreed to find tection of Gibraltar, which might be, though it was not, a verdict of guilty on the charges. The court found specially threatened. For reasons which it is difficult to trace even now, that the admiral was not guilty of cowardice or disaffection, the council was unanimous in recommending that Minorca, and as to the negligence charged, they wrote to the Admiralty which the admiral had been sent out specially to protect, should as follows :—“We cannot help laying the distresses of our be abandoned, and that Gibraltar should be the admiral's care. minds before your lordships on this occasion, in finding our There seems to have been an idea that, do what they could, the selves under necessity of condemning a man to death, from citadel of St. Philip could not be delivered from the numerous the great severity of the twelfth article of war, part of which onomy which was besioging it; and it does not seem to have he falls under, which admits of no mitigation if the crime been considered that if the French fleet conld have been defeated, should be committed by an error in judgment; and therefore
, succours might have been thrown into the place, and that the for our own consciences' sake, as well as in justice to the French, blockaded on the sea-side, would have been placed prisoner, we pray your lordships in the most earnest manner between two fires, and the besiegers turned into the besieged. , to recommend him to His Majesty's clemency." In an evil hour Admiral Byng acted on the advice of his Nothing could have been stronger than this. The papers council of war, and gave orders for the fleet to proceed to were forwarded to the king, but without any recommendation Gibraltar. On his arrival there, on the 19th of June, he from the Admiralty. Viscount Torrington, the prisoner's found five ships of the line awaiting his orders, having kineman, petitioned the king for mercy, and several of the been sent out by the Admiralty to counterbalance a reinforce Cabinet Ministers advised to the same end. The people had ment which it was anderstood was about to join M. de la grown calmer, and on further reflection deemed that the Govern: Galissonière from Toulon. With this unexpected addition to ment which had sent the admiral away with an insufficient his strength, he resolved to go back to Minorca, find out the force was more to blame than the admiral, and the cry for French fleet, and try to execute his original instructions. But Byng's blood was considerably lessened-indeed, it began to ho delayed his departure, possibly unavoidably, but the delay be thought by many that the admiral was an ill-nsed man, was fatal to Port Mahon. Notwithstanding the odds against The king, however, was inexorable ; he would not be moved him, which included not only the army of the Duo de Richelien by petitions, recommendations, or anything else; he consented but the returned French fleet with reinforcements under M. de to refer to the twelve judges the question, whether on tech la Galissonière, General Blakeney refused to take the same nical grounds the sentence was legal; and having obtained 27 desperate view of his position as had been taken by Admiral answer in the affirmative, nothing would induce him to spare Byng ; and he held out for more than five weeks after the Byng's life. departure of the fleet. Even his enemies, though annoyed by It seems that Byng had, until a day or so before the close his resistance, admired it; and when, towards the end of June, of his
trial, entertained the conviction that he would be acquitted. he fonnd no succour coming, and that the garrison were much Conscious of his own innocence, he felt persuaded his judge straitened for stores and weakened through sickness, he proposed would end by also thinking him innocent, and he expressed to capitulate, the French granted him terms that were honourable considerable surprise when a friend informed him of the sentence to both sides alike. On the 29th of Jane Minorca was sur- he might expect. Even after his condemnation he seems to rendered to the Duo de Richelieu, and on the 3rd of July, when have believed his life would be spared, and this belief was Admiral Byng was thinking of starting from Gibraltar to relieve shared by almost every one else except the king and those who it, he was surprised by the arrival of Admirals Hawke
and were bent on screening the Government
at the expense of the Saunders to supersede him and Admiral West in the command individual. But a warrant was sent down to Portsmouth of the Mediterranean floet.
from the Admiralty (Admiral Forbes, one of the commissioners
, A distinction was made between the cases of the two admirals refused to sign it), ordering Byng's execution for the 28th of even before they reached England, and when they did arrive, February, and then the terrible earnestness of the prosecaAdmiral West was looked upon as the man who, by his con- tion was made manifest. Even then, however, efforts Wer duct on the 20th of May, had saved the national honour from irredeemable disgrace. He was graciously received, and at the request of the king another command was given to him. of a less punishment for negligence, or error in judgment; and by
. This article was modified in the time of George III., so as to admit Admiral Byng, however, was at once arrested, and the Minis- the present articles of war, an officer, convicted as Admiral Byng was ters, against whose incapacity and sheer mismanagement the I would be dismissed the service trith disgrace.
made to save him by the exertions of friendly members in | ligneous vegetables, frequently climbers or creepers, having their place in Parliament; but the only result of their inter- opposite and stipulate leaves ; flowers complete, usually irreposition was to prolong the admiral's life till the 14th of March. gular; calyx monosepalous, quinquepartite, bilabiate, or bipartite;
On that day the boats of the fleet at Spithead were ordered corolla, a short tube terminating in a large throat; limb ordito surround the Monarch, the third-rate in which, since his narily bilabiate, imbricated in æstivation; stamens alternate condemnation, Admiral Byng had remained in custody of the with the divisions of the corolla, rarely five in number, ordiAdmiralty marshal. All captains and certain other officers narily four. were required to witness the deed which was to be done, and The annexed engraving of the Jacaranda mimosifolia, or at noon all things were ready. Shortly before that time, the mimosa-leaved jacaranda, a Brazilian plant (Fig. 194), illusprisoner, whose demeanour had been invariably dignified and trates the general aspect and bearing of members belonging composed, asked the marshal to take charge of a paper he had to this natural order. written, containing comments upon his trial, and on the circum- Individuals of this family belong exclusively to the tropios. stances under which he had acted at Minorca. “Happy for Many species of Bignoniaceæ furnish useful principles. The me," he wrote, “at this, my last moment, that I know my own wood of some and the flexible branches are applied by the innocence, and am conscious that no part of my country's mis. American Indians to many useful purposes. The catalpa of fortunes can be owing to me. I heartily wish the shedding of North America (Catalpa syringifolia) and the catalpa of the my blood may contribute to the happiness and service of my West Indies (Catalpa longissima) are members of the natural country, but cannot resign my just claim to a faithful discharge order Bignoniacee. The wood of the former is as hard as oak, of my duty according to the best of my judgment, and the utmost and possesses the good quality of not becoming subject to the exertion of my ability for His Majesty's honour and my country's attacks of worms. The Bignonia chica is a climbing plant, service. I am sorry that my endeavours were not attended with which affords a red dye, called chica or carajura, used by the more success, and that the armament under my command proved Indian tribes that live along the banks of the Orinoco for too weak to succeed in an expedition of such moment. Truth staining the handles of their weapons and for painting their has prevailed over calumny and falsehood, and justice has wiped bodies. off the ignominious stain of my supposed want of personal
SECTION L.-PEDALIACEÆ, OR PEDALIADS. courage, and the charge of disaffection. My heart acquits me
Characteristics.—These plants are generally herbaceons, hairy, of these crimes; but who can be presumptuously sure of his own sometimes viscous ; the leaves are simple and without stipules ; judgment ? If my crime is an error in judgment, or differing in flowers complete, irregular, axillary; calyx five-partite ; corolla opinion from my judges, and if yet the error in judgment should bilabiate, imbricated in æstivation; stamens included in the be on their side, God forgive them, as I do; and may the dis- tube of the corolla ; ovary furnished at its base with a glandular tress of their minds, and uneasiness of their consciences, which disc, and composed of two or four carpels, forming by their in justice to me they have represented, be relieved and subsided different degrees of introflexion either two, four, or eight cells ; as my resentment has done. The Supreme Judge sees all hearts the ovules are reflexed; style simple, terminal; stigma bilaand motives, and to him I must submit the justice of my cause."
minated; fruit dry or fleshy, sometimes horny at the summit by Having delivered this paper, Admiral Byng walked out from the desiccation of the carpels. his cabin on to the quarter-deck, where the marines who were to The species of this natural order are not very numerous, and kill him were already drawn up. He had resolved not to have
are dispersed over tropical regions. The Pedalium murex, an his eyes bandaged; bat the entreaties of his friends, who feared Indian plant, diffuses an odour of musk, and when agitated lest his looks should intimidate the soldiers, prevailed, and he with water, causes the latter to become viscous like the white stuffered a handkerchief to be bound round his brows. In three of egg. The genus Martynia, an example of which, the Martynia minutes from the time of quitting his cabin, John Byng was proboscidea or proboscis-like Martynia, is given in Fig. 195, placed in his coffin, having fallen instantaneously dead, with furnishes many species, all of which are annuals, bearing flowers five bullets in his body.
like those of the foxglove in general aspect. Thus perished Admiral Byng, whose reputation has been cleared by posterity of the blemish which malice and interested
SECTION LI.-ACANTHACEÆ, OR ACANTHADS. hatred were so busy in casting upon it. His body was not cold
Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopetabefore people began to cry out that he had been murdered, and lous ; stamens inserted upon the tabe of the corolla, four the cruel persistency of the king in carrying out the sentence of didynamous or sometimes two; ovary bilocular; capsule death caused Byng to be raised in the popular estimation to a loculicidal and bivalvular; seed dicotyledonous or albuminous; height of favour he scarcely deserved. The means by which the radicle inferior and centripetal. Government sought to hide their own defects, by the sacrifice of
The Acanthacece are herbaceous or ligneous plants, with one man, recoiled on their own heads, and the ghost of Byng, branching, knotty articulated stems; leaves opposite or vertilike that of Banquo, haunted them terrifically at their feasts. cillate, simple, and devoid of stipules ; flowers complete, rarely The sacrifice they offered up did not propitiate the national solitary, each accompanied with a bract and two bracteoles; resentment, but whetted it the rather; and those whose incom-calyx four to five partite, sometimes truncated; the corolla is petency and mismanagement had brought so many disgraces, ordinary bilabiate, contorted in æstivation ; ovules curved ; including the loss of Minorca, upon the nation, were driven from style simple, terminal ; stigma ordinarily bifid; embryo usually power. But amid the blaze of glory, which the genius of Pitt curved ; cotyledons large and orbicular. and his friends shed around the latter years of George II.,
The greater number of the Acanthus order are natives of the people did not forget—and it was well they should not forget tropics; but a few, and that one which is the most celebrated, -the disgraceful seal which was put to the former years of are indigenous to Italy, Greece, and other Mediterranean national disgrace, by the execution, on the 14th of March, regions. It is the Acanthus mollis, or soft acanthus, a repre1757, of Admiral Byng, on board the Monarch, in Ports- sentation of which is given in Fig. 196. mouth harbour.
The picturesque beauty of the leaves of this species arrested the attention of the painters, sculptors, and architects of anti
quity. The capitals surmounting the columns of the Corinthian LESSONS IN BOTANY.-XXV.
order are formed on the general basis of an acanthus leaf.
Virgil 'alludes to the beauty of the acanthus leaf in his third SECTION XLIX.-BIGNONIACEÆ, OR BIGNONIADS.
eclogue, in which he makes his shepherd praise two goblets Characteristics.-Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopeta- carved in wood for him by Alcimedon, and the handles of lous, usnally irregular; stamens inserted upon the tube of the which were ornamented with acanthus leaves :corolla; ovary one, or two, or four celled; fruit capsular, valves
* Et nobis idem Alcimedon duo pocula fecit, separated by seed-bearing dissepiments, rarely placentiferous ;
Et molli circum est ansas amplexus acantho." seeds usually horizontal and winged; seed dicotyledonous ; embryo straight.
SECTION LII.-SELAGINACEÆ, OR SELAGIDS. The Bignoniaceve derive their name from the genus Bimonia Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopetaor trumpet-flower, dedicated to the Abbé Bignon, librarian to lous, sub-regular, or one or two lipped; stamens two or four, Louis XIV., and a great promoter of botany. They are generally inserted upon the tube of the corolla ; achænia two; seed inverted, dicotyledonous; embryo straight, corresponding with
SECTION LIII.-UTRICULARLÆ. the axis of Aeshy albumen ; radicle superior.
Characteristics : Calyx free; corolla hypogynous, monopetaThe Selaginaceo, so named after the genus Selago, are lous, irregular; stamens two, inserted upon the tube of the all low shrubs, rarely herbs, having alternate or fasciculated corolla; fruit capsular; placenta parietal, free; seeds numerous, leaves, simple and without stipules; their flowers are com- exalbuminous ; radicle straight; all aquatic herbs. plete and generally irregular, either disposed in a corymb The Utriculariæ derive their name from their principal genus or a spike; calyx persistent, tubular,
Utricularia, which is so called from the or spathose; corolla with four or five
presence of abundant aërial vesicles disdivisions, imbricated in æstivation ;
tributed over the surface of their subthe anthers are unilocular ; the ovary
These utriculi are is composed of two uniovulate cells;
rounded in shape and furnished with a ovules pendent, reflexed. All the Sela
kind of movable aperture. Whilst the ginacece inhabit the Cape of Good
plant is young these little biadders are Hope. This family does not possess
filled with mucus a little heavier than marked properties, nevertheless many
water, which, acting as a weight, canse species are odorous. The Hebenstreitia
the plant to descend to the bottom of dentata, cultivated in our gardens, is
the water. As the period of flowering & shrub about two feet high, with
arrives, the utriculi secrete a gas which pinnatifid leaves in the lower, dentated
fills them, makes them specifically leaves in the upper part of the plant.
lighter, and thus, by lessening the speThe flowers have a tubular corolla, one
cific gravity of the leaves, causes them single lip, marked with a roseate purple
to rise to the water's surface. No sooner spot; the flowers are inodorous in the
has the period of flowering terminated, morning, but strong and disagreeable at
than the vesicles begin once more to semid-day, whilst in the evening they ex
crete the heavy mucous fluid, and the hale a delicious perfume. The Selago
leaves again sinking, the plant arrives at spuria has small oblong leaves and
its original situation, and deposits its light-blue flowers. The stem of the
seeds in the subaqueous mud, there to Selago Gilli is flower - bearing and
remain until they germinate and produce branched, having its flowers, which are
young plants. of a pale rose-colour, disposed in the
This family is distributed over the form of a loose spikelet. A repre
entire world, although chiefly found sentation of
in tropical rethis plant is
gions of the old appended in
continents. Fig. 197. The Globus
SECT. LIV.lariæ form a
PLANTAGIgenus or fami.
NACEÆ, OR ly of the natu
RIBWORTS. ral order Sela.
Characteris. ginaceo. They 195
tics: Calyx are all shrubs,
free; corolla under
hypogynous, shrubs, or pe
monopetalous; rennial herbs;
stamens intheir flowers
serted upon are alternate,
the corolla or simple, entire,
apon the mo devoid of sti.
ceptacle alter pules; flowers
Date with the complete, irre
petals; ovary gular, united
one or two into a capitu
celled, ani- of lum upon a
multi-ovulate; convex recep
fruit one or tacle, covered with hair, and
donous; with an invo
bryo straight lucrum; the
or but slightly anthers are
curved in the first bilocular,
axis of a fleshy and in the
albumen; ra young flower
dicle inferior. become unilo
The plancular by the 194. MIMOSA-LEAVED JACARANDA (JACARANDA MIMOSIFOLIA). 195. PROBOSCIS-LIKE MARTYNIA (MARTYNIA
tainsare perenconfluence of PROBOSCIDEA). 196. SOFT ACANTHUS (ACANTHUS MOLLIS).
nials, generaltheir cells;
ly herbaceous; ovary unilocular, uniovulate, pendent, reflexed; the caryopsis leaves sometimes radical, sometimes cauline, simple, without is enveloped by the calyx, sharply pointed at the persistent base stipules ; flowers complete, sometimes monccions, arranged of the style.
sometimes in the form of a spike, sometimes solitary, or almost The Globularice are inhabitants of temperate Europe. The solitary; calyx monosepalous, persistent, with four divisions, bitter leaves of certain species are employed in medicine. The the divisions almost equal with each other; corolla tubular
Globularia Alypum (Fig. 198) was formerly denominated Frutex or urceolate, its limb three or four partite, regular or almost terribilis, in consequence of the belief that it was violently regular, persistent ; imbricated in æstivation ; stamens four in drastic. Its leaves are the "wild senna ” of Germany, and are number, rarely one. The ovary of monccions species is uniquently used to adulterate the genuine senna.
locular ; ovule simple, erect, reflexed.