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NEW THEOR Y FOR THE RISE AND FALL OF THE BAROMETER.
MR DALTON, Professor of Mathematics and Natural Philosophy Manchester, in an Essay on the Variation of the Barometer, advances an hypothesis, which is engenious and somewhat new.
From some observations on the barometer, at different elevations above the sea, he concludes that the height of the atmosphere does not perpetually vary with the height of the column of quicksilver,—but that the variation of the barometer depends on a change in the density of the lower strata of air. This change Mr D. supposes to arise from the influx of warm air containing much water, and therefore as is well known being lighter, into a body of cold and dry air ; by which means, part of the cold air is displaced, and the warm air diffused among the remainder; hence the weight of the column is diminished, its elasticity and bulk continuing the same: the reverse happens when dry air mixes with warm air, containing much water. On this principle, the author explains, with considerable address, the range of the barometer in different climates and seasons ; as will appear from the following specimen :
“ The barometer is often low in winter, when a strong and warm S. or SW. wind blows ; the annual extremes at Kendal for these 5 years have always been in January ; the lowest was in January 1789, about 2 weeks after the above mentioned high extreme ; it was accompanied with a strong S. or SW. wind, and heavy rain ; the temperature of the air at the time was not high, being about 37°, but the reason was no doubt because one half of the ground was covered with snow ; it was therefore probably warmer before.- Now the reason why the 2.2. low extreme should have at that time, as well as at many others, foon succeeded the high extreme, seems explicable as follows : the extreme and long-continued cold preceding, must have reduced the gross part of the atmosphere unusually low, and condensed an extraordinary quantity of dry air into the lower regions ; this air was succeeded by a warm and vapoury current coming from the torrid zone, before the higher regions, the mutations of which in temperature and density are flow, had time to acquire the heat, quantity of matter, and elevation consequent to such a change below; these two circumstances meeting, namely, a low atmosphere, and the greatest part of it constituted of light vapoury air, occafioned the pressure upon the earth's surface to be so much reduced. Hence then, it should seem, we ought never to expect an extraordidary fall of the barometer, unless when an extraordinary rise has preceded, or at leaf a long and severe frost; this, I think, is a fair induction from the foregoing principles; how far it is corroborated by past observations, besides those just mentioned, I have not been able to learn."
A METHOD TO MAKE HENS LAY EGGS ALL THE WINTER.
GATHER nettle-tops when going to seed. Dry them, and lay them by for use. Mix some of this with a little broken hemp seed and pollard in barley meal, and give them two or three pellets or little balls of it daily throughout the
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For J A NU A RRY 1796.
ACCOUNT OF THE LIFE OF ADAM SMITH, L. L. D.
WITH A PORTRAIT.
DAM SMITH, Author of the friendly and generous. Even then he
Inquiry into the Narure and was remarkable for those habits which lauses of the Wealth of Nations, was remained with him through life, of the fon of Adam Smith, comptroller of speaking to himself when alone, and of se cuftoms at Kirkaldy, and of Mar- absence in company. gaet Douglas, daughter of Mr Dou From the grammar school of Kirz'as of Strathenry.
He was born at kaldy, he was sent, in 1737, to the uKirkaldy on the 5th of June 1723.
niversity of Glasgow; there he remainAn accident which happened to him, ed till 1740, when he went to Baliol sien he was about three years old, is College, Oxford, as an exhibitioner on 500 interesting to be omitted in the ac
Snells' foundation. At that university, coent of fo valuable a life. He had his favourite pursuits were mathematics been carried by his mother to Strath and natural philosophy. These, howcy, on a visit to his uncle Mr Dou. ever, were certainly not the sciences in
-as, and was one day amusing himself which he was formed to excel ; nor did 2:0 De at the door of the house, when he they long divert him from pursuits more sas stolen by a party of that set of va congenial to his mind. The study of Ft 20:s who are known in Scotland by
human nature in all its branches, more the name of tinkers. Luckily he was
particularly of the political history of box? nised by his uncle, who, hearing mankind, opened a boundless field to tia: fome vagrants had passed, porsued his curiofity and ambition ; and while them with wbat alistance he could find, it afforded scope to all the various powers it be overtook them in Leslie wood, of his versatile and comprehensive geand was the happy instrument of pre- nius, gratified his ruling passion, of conferving to the world, a genius which tributing to the happiness and improvewas destined, not only to extend the ment of society. To this study, diverbundaries of science, but to enlighten fified at his leisure hours by the less fead reform the commercial policy of vere occupations of polite literature, he
seems to have devoted himself, almost Mr Smith received the first rudi- entirely, from the time of his removal ents of his educution at the school of to Oxford; but he still retained, eren Lukaldy. Among the companions of in advanced years, a recollection of his 1:38 earliest years, he foon' attracted no- early acquisitions, which not only adrce, by his passion for books, and by ded to the fplendour of his conversaune extraordinary powers of his memo- tion, but enabled him to exemplify some 7. The weakness of his bodily con
of his favourite theories concerning the frution prevented him from partaking natural progress of the mind in the in1? their more active amusements, but vestigation of truth, by the history of he was much beloved by them on ac- those sciences in which the connection count of his temper, which, though and succeshon of discoveries may be trawarm, was, to an uncommon degree, ced with the greatest advantage. After Vol. LVIII.
residence at Oxford of seven years, he Sentiments,” and in the “ Wealth of returned to Kirkaldy, and lived two Nations."
with his mother, engaged in study, There was no situation in which the but without any fixed plan for his fu- abilities of Mr Smith appeared to greatture life. He had been originally def. er advantage than as a professor. In tined for the church of England ; but delivering his lectures, he trusted elmoft not finding the ecclefiaftical profession entirely to extemporary elocution. His suitable to his taste, he chose to con manner, though not graceful, was plain fult, in this instance, his own inclina. and unaffected ; and as he seemed to be tion, in preference to the wishes of his always intere&ted in the subject, he never friends; and abandoning, at once, ail failed to intereft his hearers. the fchemes which their prudence had putation as a profeffor, was accordingformed for him, he resolved to return iy raised very high, and a multitude of to his own country, and to limit his students, from a great distance, resortambition to the uncertain prospect of ed to the university, merely upon his obtaining, in time, some one of those account. Those branches of science moderate preferments to which literary which he taught became fashionable at attainments lead in Scotland.
this place : and even the small peculiIn the year 1748, he fixed his refi- arities in his pronunciation, or manner dence at Edinburgh, and, during that of speaking, became frequeotly the ob. and the following year, read lectures on jects of imitation. rhetoric and belles lettres, under the While Mr Smith was thus diftin-, patronage of Lord Kaimes. About this guishing himself by his zeal and ability time, he contracted acquaintance with as a public teacher, he was gradually many eminent men, particularly with laying the foundation of a more extenMr David Hume, which afterwards five reputation, by preparing for the grew into friendship; a friendship found press his system of morals. The first ed, on both sides, on the admiration of edition of this work appeared in 1759, genius, and the love of simplicity; and under the title of “The Theory of which forms an interesting circumstance Moral Sentiments," a work too well in the history of each of those eminent known, and too juftly estimated, to remen, from the ambition which both have quire either illustration or praise here. shown to record it to posterity. In the fame volume with the Theory of
In 1751, he was elected Professor of Moral Sentiments, Mr Smith published logic in the university of Glasgow; and a differtation “On the Origin of Lanthe year following, he was removed to guages, and on the different Genius of the Professorship of moral philofophy in those which are Original and Comthe same university. In this fituation pounded.” It is an Effay of great inhe remained thirteen years ; a period genuity, and on which the author himhe used frequently to look back to, as self set a high value ; but, in a general the most useful and happy of his life. review of his publications, it deserves It was indeed a ficuation in which he our attention dess, on account of the was eminently fitted to excel, and in opinions that it contains, an as a spewhich the daily labours of his profeffion cimen of a particular fort of inquiry, were constantly recalling his attention which may be traced in all Mr Smith's to his favourite pursuits, and familiar- works, whether moral, political, or liizing his mind to those important fpe- terary. culations he was afterwards to commu After the publication of the Theory nicate to the world.
of Moral Sentiments, Mr Smith reOf Mr Smith's lectures, while a pro- mained four years at Glasgow, dischargfeffor at Glasgow, no part has been ing his official duties with unabated vipreserved, excepting what he himself gour, and with increasing reputation. published in "The Theory of Moral Towards the end of 1768, Mr Smith
received an invitation from Mr Charles they fixed their residence for eighteen
Helvetius, Marmontel, Madame Ricco-
interest ture on the smallest scale is sufficient to ing period of his history; and such was convey a tolerably just conception of his averfion to write letters, that scarcewhat paffes on the great theatre of the ly any memorial of it exists in his corworld, yet it is not to be doubted, that respondence with bis friends. The exthe variety of scenes through which he tent and accuracy of his memory, in afterwards passed, must have enriched which he was iqualled by few, made it his mind with many new ideas, and cor- of little consequence to himfelf, to rerected many of those misapprehensions cord in writing what he heard or faw; of life and manners, which the first de- and from his anxiety before his death scriptions of them can scarcely fail to to destroy all the papers in his poffeffion, convey. But whatever were the lights he seems to have wished, that no matewhich his travels afforded him, as a ftu- rials should remain for his biographers, dent of human nature, they were pro- but what were furnished by the lasting bably useful to him in a still higher de monuments of his genius, and the ex. gree, in enabling him to perfect that emplary worth of his private life. fyftem of political economy, which it In October 1766, he returned to was now the leading object of his studies London with his noble pupil, whose to prepare for the public. After leav- impressions of the satisfaction he re. ing Glasgow, Me Smith joined the ceived from their tour, may be conceivDuke of Buccleugh at London, early ed from the following paragraph of a in the
year 1764; and set out with him letter written by his Grace to Profeffor for the Continent, in the month of Stewart: “We returned to London,
after having spent near three years togeIn their first visit to Paris, the Duke ther, without the slightest disagreement of Baccleugh and Mr Smith employed or coolness : on my part, with every only ten of twelve days; after which advantage that could be expected from they proceeded to Thoulouse, where the society of such a man. We contiVol. LVIII,