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In Demosthenem Commentarii JOANNIS SEAGER. No.
VII. •••

109

Cambridge Prize Poems, for 1824 :-Greek

113

Latin

• 117

Epigrammata : Greek and Latin ..

121

Porsonian Prize : Greek

122

Greek Inscriptions, from the Marbles in the Library of

Trinity Coll., Cambridge. Professor DOBREE 124

Literæ quædam ineditæ ex autographis inter schedas

D'Orvillianas, in Bibl. Bodl. asservatas descriptæ .... 149

Notice of “ Narrative of an Excursion to the Mountains

of Piemont, and Researches among the Vaudois, or

Waldenses, Protestant Inhabitants of the Cottian Alps;

by the Rev. W. S. GILLY

152

Notice of “ Travels in Persia and other Countries of the

East, by Sir W.OUSELEY, Knt.” ....

161

Oxford English Prize Poem, for 1824 : The Arch of

Titus. J. T. Hope

172

In Senecam Tragicum Variæ Lectiones ......

Notice of “Olympia; or Topography illustrative of the

actual state of the Plain of Olympia, and of the Ruins of

the City of Elis. By J. SPENCER STANHOPE, F.R.S.” 176

The Nightingale

180

Oriental Literature :- Notices of, 1. An Essay towards

the History of Arabia, antecedent to the birth of Ma-

hommed. 2. Takyodini Ahmedis al-Makrizii Narratio

de Expeditionibus a Græcis Francisque adversus Dimy-

atham ab A. C. 708 ad 1221 susceptis. 3. Das Mu-

hammedanische Mūnzkabinet des Asiatischen Museums,

&c. 4. Die Chosroen-Münzen der frühern Arabischen

Chalifen. 5. De Baschkiris quæ memoriæ prodita sunt

ab Ibn-Foszlano et Jakuto. 6. De Chasaris, excerpta

ex Scriptoribus Arabicis.

7. Antiquitatis Muhamme-

danæ Monumenta varia. 8. De Antiquis quibusdam

Sculpturis et Inscriptionibus in Siberia repertis

182

Literary Intelligence

187

Selection of Foreign Literary Intelligence

194

To Correspondents

200

Page

Prof. SCHLEGEL's History of the Elephant and Sphinx;

with Classical and Oriental Remarks

209

Some Account of an Excursion from Rome to Horace's

Sabine Farm

... 216

Cambridge English Prize Poem, for 1821:-Athens.

W. M. PRAED

•-• 232

On the Pyramids of Egypt. Part v.

...o 240

Observations on the Excerpta from the Scholia of Pro-

clus on the Cratylus of Plato, by Prof. BOISSONADE.

'• 247

Notice of “ BAGster's Scripture Harmony"

253

Classical Criticism : Prof. Porson's Derivation of 'Eyu

refuted. E. H. BARKER

255

A. H. L. Heerenii Dissertatio de Chori Græcorum Tragici

Natura et Indole, ratione argumenta habita. Part 11. 257

Duæ RUHNKENII Epistolæ Ineditæ, a cl. CAR. MOR-

GENSTERNIO nunc in lucem prolatæ

262

In Demosthenem Commentarii JOANNIS SEAGER. No.
VIII.

265

Notice of “ Anti-Tooke; or an Analysis of the Principles

and Structure of Language, exemplified in the English

Tongue; by J. Fearn"

274

Notice of « Travels in Persia and other Countries of the

East, by Sir W. OUSELEY, Knt." Part 11. ........ 279

Parallel Passages.

... 288

Latin Prize Poem: Paulus ad fidem conversus.

Sir R.

WALPOLE ...

299

On the Various Readings of the Hebrew Bible. Letter iv. 297

Emendations of the text of Plato

... 304

E. H. BARKERi Dissertatio de Variis Bassis, quorum

mentio in veteribus Scriptoribus et Monumentis facta est 306

The Arithmetic of the Holy Scriptures. Part vi. ...... 321

Biblical Criticism : On the 1st and 2nd chapters of St. Mat-

thew; comprising a view of the leading Arguments in fa-

vor of their Authenticity, and of the principal Objections

which have been urged on the subject. By LATHAM

WAINEWRIGHT, M. A. No. II.....

Extracts from neglected Books : Baptistæ Mantuani Car-

melitæ Adolescentia, seu Bucolica-Francisci. Petrarchæ

Æglogæ-Metrical Conceit-Pugna Porcorum • 333

Is the Nightingale the Herald of Day as well as the Mes-

senger of Spring ? No. iv.

341

On Fables, and the Eastern Sciences

• 345

The Meaning of St. Paul i Cor. xi. 10. clearly esta-

blished on the Authority of the Scriptures, of the Fa-

thers, and of D. Heinsius and Joseph Mede, without

any alteration or interpolation of the Sacred Text. E.

H. BARKER. No. 11. ...

360

Remarks on a Passage of Polyænus

370

Biblical Criticism

374

Literæ Quædam Ineditæ ex Autographis inter* schedas

D’Orvillianas, in Bibl. Bodl. adservatas descriptæ. No.

376

Notice of “ Bibliotheca Biblica; a select List of Books

on Sacred Literature; with notices, biographical, cri-

tical, and bibliographical; by W. ORME

379

Notice of “ Acta Apostolorum. Variorum Notis tum dic-

tionem túni materiam illustrantibus suas adjecit Has-

TINGS ROBINSON, A. M.”

381

Rare Arabic Manuscript

391

Answer to an Extract of a Letter from Mr. Walckenaer,

inserted in Class. Journ. No. Lix.

394

Westminster Prologue and Epilogue 'to the Phornio of

Terence : for December, 1824......

398

Notice of Prof. BOISSONADE's Publications .......... 402

Notice of “ The Death of Demosthenes: a Tragedy—in

prose. Translated from the modern Greek by Gre-

GORIOS PALÆOLOGUS"

412

Subject for Themes, &c. .....

415

Literary Intelligence

416

Selection of Foreign Literary Intelligence

422

To Correspondents

429

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THE

CLASSICAL JOURNAL;

N. LIX.

SEPTEMBER, 1824.

ON EMBASSIES TO CHINA.

BY M. KLAPROTH.

a

Russia concluded in 1728 a treaty with China, by which the frontiers between the two empires were definitively settled, and a reciprocal commerce was established between them on solid basis. After the perusal of this treaty, which contains nothing humiliating to Russia, we should deceive ourselves if we were to suppose that that power is regarded by China as its equal. Even in the treaty itself there is nothing that can induce us to presume that China arrogates to itself a supremacy over Russia ; but if we read the description of that empire in the official geography of the Mandchoux, we shall find that the monarchy of the Czars is treated as a state that has submitted to the prince who governs the Central Empire. Even the custom by which they are to receive the ambassadors, and the Russian tribute, is there specified according to the Chinese regulation.

Diplomatists will, perhaps, reply, that as China has never received the smallest mark of submission from Russia, this ridiculous vanity of the Chinese ought to be treated with the contempt which every pretension that cannot be maintained ought to be treated. But these diplomatists would be in error, according to the Chinese, and in the eyes of Europeans capable of judging the question.

For according to the opinion prevalent with the Chinese, VOL. XXX.

Cl. Jl.

NO. LIX. A

every foreign power that sends to them an embassy, recognises by such act, their submission to the Emperor.'

In Chinese this act of submission is described by the words lai tchhao, “ to come and render homage.” This expression is generally applied to the first embassy of any power; the embassies that succeed are designated by the terms lai koung, to come and bring tribute.” If we consult the Chinese annals, we shall see, that in the 166th year of our era, the Roman Emperor Antoninus (Marcus Aurelius) sent an embassy that offered tribute to Houon-ti, of the dynasty of the Han; that in the year 284 another brought it to the Tsin, and that the same event happened in 637, and in 719. It will be found also, that Spain has submitted ever since 1576, Holland ever since 1653, and the Pope ever since 1725.

In the explanation of a map of the world, published at Peking in 1794, we read: “In the 58th year of Khian Loung (1793), the English, who are situated at the north-west extremity of the world, and who in former times had never penetrated to China, crossed the two oceans, to come and render homage to the Emperor.” The second deputation of the English will be treated in the annals of China, as having brought tribute.

Thus it is seen, that the mission of an embassy is a mark of submission, and that the presents which they bring are considered as due to the Emperor; so that they are called koung, vectigalia, tributa.” Koung signifies generally, every thing that an inferior offers to a natural superior.

We are aware that many think, that for political or commercial interests we inay be allowed to shut our eyes at the arrogant vanity of the Chinese, provided the embassy obtains its proposed object. We might, indeed, be induced to be of this opinion, if it were not an incontrovertible fact, that an embassy to China can never accomplish its object. The Chinese, far from negociating with the ambassadors of foreign powers, consider them as messengers come, on the behalf of their masters, to present his respects and the tribute due to his superior.

The fixed and immutable mode of treating with the Chinese governments, is that of transmitting in writing the demands to

The same ridiculous vanity prevails at Marocco: 'a late Emperor declared war against every European power that did not send an ambassador or a consul with a present to Tangier. These presents are considered as homage; and it is a common observation among the people of that country to say, that the Christian powers make presents in homage ; or in other words, not voluntarily, but (v zimminhume) by compulsion.

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